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Aero Medical Study Cards
Aero Medical study topics for IERW.
Terms in this set (28)
• The state of feeling tired, weary, or sleepy that results from prolonged mental or physical work, extended periods of anxiety, exposure to harsh environments, or loss of sleep.
• The inability to determine one's position, attitude, or movement relative to a point of reference, usually the surface of the Earth.
• A spinning sensation caused by an abnormality in the middle ear.
TYPES OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
• Unrecognized (Type 1): most dangerous type because the pilot is unaware of the problem and fails to take action.
• Recognized (Type 2): pilot recognizes that the body's senses and instrument indications are not the same.
• Incapacitating (Type 3): overwhelming sensation of movement, can't orient by visual cues or instruments; controls must be transferred.
3 SENSORY SYSTEMS
• Visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive.
• Most reliable sensory system in flight. 80% of orientation comes from vision. Ineffective without ground reference.
• Inner ear and temporal bones; contains the semi-circular canals and otolith organs that detect motion and gravity.
• Gravity and linear accelerations/decelerations.
FUNCTION OF SEMI-CIRCULAR CANALS
• Angular acceleration in pitch, roll, and yaw.
• "Seat-of-the-pants" flying; special sensors in skin, muscles, tendons, and joints. Play a very small roll in spacial orientation.
TYPES OF VESTIBULAR ILLUSIONS
• Semi-circular canals
1. Leans: most common illusion; caused by gradual or prolonged turn that went unnoticed. Threshold for unnoticed turn is 2 degrees or less.
2. Graveyard Spin: caused by prolong spin, intentional or unintentional.
3. Coriolis Illusion: most dangerous; sudden sense of rolling, pitching, or yawing causing unnecessary control input and loss of control.
• Otolith organs
1. Oculogravic: occurs when an aircraft accelerates and decelerates; creates a nose high/low illusion.
2. Elevator: caused by upward acceleration; creates a nose-high illusion.
3. Oculoagravic: caused by downward movement; creates a nose-low illusion (autorotation).
PREVENTION OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
- VISUAL: never fly without visual references.
- VMC: never fly VMC and IMC at the same time.
- TRUST: trust the instruments.
- SELF: avoid self-imposed stresses.
TREATMENT OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
- DELAY intuitive actions.
- DEVELOP good cross checks.
- TRANSFER controls.
SELF IMPOSED STRESSES
- D: drugs
- E: exhaustion
- A: alcohol
- T: tobacco
- H: hypoglycemia
- SELF MEDICATION: unwanted side effects
- OVERDOSE: follow Rx
- ALLERGIC REACTION: exaggerated or pathological reaction
- PREDICTABLE SIDE EFFECTS: desirable effects from use
- SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS: undesirable effects from 2 or more drugs
- CAFFEINE: use in moderation
• Rest and sleep; tiredness causes slowed reaction. Physical conditioning stimulates various body systems and has positive effects on mental health.
• Moderate use, 12 hour rule; causes HISTOTOXIC HYPOXIA
• Attaches to blood cells 200-300 times faster, creates physiological altitude of 5,000 ft; causes HYPEMIC HYPOXIA
• Blood sugar levels, eat regular meals; diet pills are not authorized.
12 TYPES OF VISUAL ILLUSIONS
• False horizon
• Flicker vertigo
• Confusion with ground lights
• Relative motion
• Altered planes of reference (mountains)
• Structural illusions (windshield)
• Height/depth perception illusion
• Crater illusion
• Size-distance illusion (small vs. big)
• Autokinesis (stare at a light)
• Reversible perspective
• A condition that results from an insufficient amount of oxygen in the body.
TYPES OF HYPOXIA
• Hypoxic: insufficient O2 in the air that is breathed
• Hypemic: reduction in O2 carrying capacity of the blood
• Stagnant: reduction in blood flow
• Histotoxic: interference with tissue absorbing O2
STAGES OF HYPOXIA
• Indifferent: sea level - 10k ft
• Compensatory: 10k - 15k ft
• Disturbance: 15k - 20k ft
• Critical: above 20k ft
SIGNS OF HYPOXIA
• Signs are observed:
- AMS (Altered Mental Status)
SYMPTOMS OF HYPOXIA
• Symptoms are felt:
- Air hunger
- Belligerence / euphoria
- Tunnel / blurred vision
- Hot/cold flashes
3 TYPES OF FATIGUE
• Acute Fatigue: physical or mental activity between two regular sleep periods; being awake 12 - 15 hours; loss of coordination and awareness of errors. Cured with a regular sleep period.
• Chronic Fatigue: occurs over a longer period and is typically the result of inadequate recovery from successive periods of acute fatigue. May take several weeks of rest to overcome.
• Motivational Exhaustion or Burnout: chronic fatigue proceeds untreated for too long; shut down and socially burn out.
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