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According to social learning theory, which of the following introductions to a spelling lesson is most likely to result in students' successful learning?
"If you learn some basic spelling rules, you will become a better speller."

Social learning theorists suggest that the effect of a behavior has an impact on people's motivation to engage in that specific behavior. If a student expects a positive outcome from a behavior or thinks a positive outcome is highly probable, then the student is more likely to engage in that behavior.
A teacher wants to develop an assessment based on the work of Benjamin Bloom. To best meet the goal, the assessment should include
test questions that assess varying levels of understanding

Bloom's work involved different levels of complexity of learning objectives that can relate to assessment of those objectives.
Mr. O'Conner is a first-year middle school mathematics teacher. Over the course of the year, he has struggled with classroom management. Which of the following opportunities would be the most beneficial for Mr. O'Conner right now?
There is a local workshop on promoting emotional intelligence in the classroom.

This question is designed to assess your understanding of a variety of professional development practices and resources. A workshop that promotes emotional intelligence would give the teacher strategies that he could use in his classroom to address his management problems.
Which of the following best describes a cognitive characteristic of intellectually gifted students?
They have the ability to generate original ideas.

Gifted students often possess an intense desire to learn about their own interests. Their cognitive ability to think at abstract levels earlier than same-aged peers and form their own ways of thinking about problems and ideas indicates that intellectually gifted students need advanced content and choice in learning activities.
Which of the following is most appropriate for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a student who is new to the school district?
Diagnostic test

A diagnostic test is used by a teacher to assess a student's skills and knowledge levels to determine areas of strength and weakness. A diagnostic assessment is the most appropriate way for a teacher to determine the instructional needs of a new student.
Which of the following best identifies an observable and measurable instructional objective for a unit of study on Hispanic cultures?
Students will compare and contrast holidays celebrated in Hispanic cultures with holidays celebrated in other cultures.

The learning objective is observable and measurable as it focuses directly on what the student should know and be able to do by the time the lesson is completed.
A history teacher gives a unit test on the Industrial Revolution to assess how well the students have understood the concepts they have covered in class. Which of the following types of assessments best describes the unit test?
Criterion-referenced assessment

A criterion-referenced assessment is used to determine how well a student has mastered predetermined objectives.
Throughout the year, a teacher assists students with developing and achieving specific, challenging, short-term goals. Which of the following is the teacher helping to foster in the students?
Self-efficacy

By helping students to form and achieve attainable goals, the teacher is fostering the belief individuals need to have in themselves to be intrinsically motivated in future tasks.
Which of the following is the most appropriate response by a teacher to address students who are inattentive during a lesson?
Implementing a hand signal used regularly to regain students' attention

Hand signals are commonly used to regain students' attention and encourage students to listen to each other and stay focused during discussions without interrupting the flow of instruction.
A teacher creates a focus question for an upcoming unit and has students make concept maps in groups. Which of the following is the teacher's primary purpose for the activity?
Determining students' prior knowledge

Concept maps are a graphic representation of students' knowledge. Having students create concept maps can provide the teacher with insights into how students organize and represent knowledge. This can be a useful strategy for assessing both the knowledge students have coming into a program or course and their developing knowledge of course material.
Which of the following is the primary benefit of student-teacher writing conferences?
They help teachers target the skills that an individual student needs to develop.

Student-teacher writing conferences offer insight to help teachers provide feedback to students that will enable them to develop into more effective writers
Mr. Rose wants to improve the quality of responses and the level of participation by students during class discussions. Which of the following techniques has the greatest potential for improving the thoughtfulness of students' responses and stimulating wider participation?
Waiting longer between posing a question and calling on students to respond

Providing more time for reflection and using higher-level questioning stimulates students to think at a more complex cognitive level and to provide longer, often unsolicited, more speculative responses. To encourage such responses, teachers must pose questions and then wait for students to think before they respond.
Which of the following federal mandates protects the confidentiality of educational records for parents and students?
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA) is a federal law that provides protection and rights for the family in regard to educational records.
Which of the following best describes Piaget's cognitive stage in which children are able to debate social matters and other abstract ideas?
Formal operational

According to Piaget, while children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, the ability to think about abstract concepts and debate social matters emerges during the formal operational stage of cognitive development.
A physical education teacher decides to teach students how to execute the jump shot by showing them videos of great basketball players performing the action. Students then practice the shot based on the video. Which of the following educational theories is the teacher's technique most based on?
Social learning

According to social learning theory, learning occurs when people imitate or model the behaviors of others. The students are modeling the performance of skilled basketball players when learning the jump shot in their physical education class.
A high school science teacher is developing an assessment tool to provide formative feedback on individual skills that students have been working on in their lab reports. Which of the following is the most appropriate tool for the teacher to use?
Analytic scoring rubric

An analytic scoring rubric is a form of authentic assessment that is most appropriate for a teacher to use to assess specific skills separately, particularly for assignments that involve a larger number of criteria, such as a lab report.
An English-language learner (ELL) recently dismissed from the English as a Second Language (ESL) program is now having difficulty in science. The student is proficient in everyday spoken English but has difficulty answering questions orally during class and responding in writing to test questions. Which of the following should the teacher do to best support the development of the student's academic language proficiency?
Scaffold instruction to support the student's comprehension

English-language learners will continue to need scaffolded instruction during their transition out of the ESL program.
Which of the following is the primary reason to use inquiry-based learning in the classroom?
Inquiry-based activities require reasoning and higher-level thinking skills.

Inquiry-based activities engage students in higher-level thinking as they become actively involved in seeking resolutions to questions or problems.
Ms. Ortiz' seventh-grade class is struggling with writing assignments in language arts. Recently, Ms. Ortiz attended a workshop that introduced a new strategy that she feels might benefit her students. As she implements the strategy in her classroom, she collects data to determine the effectiveness of the new strategy on her students' writing. Which of the following best describes the research methodology Ms. Ortiz is using?
Action research

Action research is a study conducted by a teacher or group of teachers to improve instruction by working through a series of reflective stages that facilitate problem solving.
Which of the following is the best example of a statement that is negatively intrinsic?
Student: I really do not want to work on this assignment.

The statement is negative and intrinsic because the student wants to avoid working on the assignment. Intrinsic motivation occurs when someone wants to do something, usually to benefit them in some way. Negative motivation is directed away from something that someone wants to avoid.
Which of the following best identifies the process in which two equally experienced teachers provide each other with feedback, support, and assistance to improve teaching performance?
Peer coaching

Peer coaching is a confidential process through which two or more professional colleagues work together to reflect on current practices; expand, refine, and build new skills; share ideas; teach each other; conduct classroom research; and/or solve problems in the workplace.
Which of the following describes an informal assessment that a teacher might use to best check individual students' understanding of a lesson or unit in progress?
The teacher asks each student to write two sentences that answer a question on a topic the teacher puts on the board midway through the class.

Asking each student to write briefly during class serves as an informal assessment, which allows the teacher to check individual understanding.
A parent shares the following with a teacher: "I'd like my daughter to find a high school curriculum that is right for her. At this point, she's confused about what courses to take. Is there some kind of test that can help determine her strengths and interests and provide her with some direction?" Which of the following tests would be most appropriate for the teacher to recommend?
Aptitude

An aptitude test provides data about a person's learning ability, strengths, interests, and overall potential. To provide direction of what courses to choose, it is most appropriate for a teacher to recommend to the parent that the student take an aptitude test.
Which of the following is a curriculum accommodation appropriate for a student with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) ?
A set of supplementary materials

An Individualized Education Program (IEP) defines individualized objectives for a student who has been found with a disability, as defined by federal regulations. The IEP is intended to help children reach educational goals more easily than they otherwise would. Supplying additional materials would not modify the curriculum, but would help to accommodate a student's curricular needs to make the student more successful in the classroom.
Which of the following best promotes intrinsic motivation in students?
Providing students choices in their learning

Providing students choices in their learning fosters student autonomy, and student autonomy promotes intrinsic motivation.
A school district has instituted a new mentoring program for first-year teachers in which they spend time during the school day observing and talking with a more experienced colleague who offers guidance and assistance. Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the program?
Increasing new teachers' job satisfaction and commitment

According to research, mentoring programs have a positive effect on teacher job satisfaction and commitment and, thus, increase retention of new teachers.
During a lesson on the American Civil War, a student interrupts the teacher and mentions a news report about people in another country being at war with one another. Which of the following is the most appropriate teacher response to the interruption?
Discussing how the news report relates to the American Civil War

The student's interruption is a teachable moment. The teacher can compare the existing war to the American Civil War to further enhance learning.
Which of the following is a primary characteristic of analytical scoring?
Performance on multiple criteria can be assessed.

Analytical scoring allows for different criteria to be assessed separately.
An eighth-grade class is using a computer software program to learn French. The students enjoy using the program, but they become frustrated when it frequently loops back to vocabulary they were shown earlier. The students most likely do not understand that
repeated exposure will help them place the vocabulary words in a schema

Students learning a new language are like a small child acquiring language. It takes many repetitions of a word before it finds a place in a schema and is usable.
Which of the following best demonstrates the use of technology to enhance student learning?
A teacher shares a video clip to illustrate a scientific process during a unit on plants.

The teacher's use of a video clip of real-world context provides active engagement to illustrate a scientific process that will enhance the learning environment.
Which of the following actions best demonstrates the de-emphasizing of grades as a strategy for increasing student self-motivation?
Allowing students to redo assignments they previously completed unsuccessfully

Research recommends de-emphasizing grading by eliminating systems of credit points. It also advises against trying to use grades to control nonacademic behavior. When students are given the opportunity to redo assignments, they will seek a better understanding of the material.
Which of the following contributes most to the development of an inviting and inclusive environment for middle school students?
Assigning an adult advocate to monitor each student's academic and social development

An inviting and inclusive school environment for young adolescents promotes in-depth learning and enhances students' physical and emotional well-being. Every student is guided by an adult advocate who monitors and supports the student's academic and personal development.
Which of the following is the primary focus for the dialogue that takes place in a critical friends group?
Encouraging reflective practice

In a critical friends group, educators come together to talk about teaching and to improve the profession through collaborative learning.
Ms. Petra is presenting a lesson about the water cycle and has given each student a diagram to label. As she teaches, she moves toward a student named Tyler, who she notices is being inattentive. Without interrupting instruction, she points to the place on Tyler's diagram where he should be writing a label. Ms. Petra's actions can best be classified as an example of
nonverbal communication

Cues, such as the teacher pointing to the place on the student's diagram, are types of receptive nonverbal communication in which some type of interaction is used to communicate a desired reaction.
At the end of a unit about the American Civil War, a social studies teacher requires that students complete a project and wants to best motivate their work on the project. Which of the following actions will best contribute to the teacher's goal?
Allowing students to choose from several different project options

An increase in student intrinsic motivation occurs when there are opportunities for students to make choices and decisions regarding their own learning.
Which of the following actions indicates that a teacher is applying cognitive learning theory into classroom practice?
Using tools that help students see the interrelatedness of information

Cognitive theory focuses on the interrelatedness of information. Using tools such as concept maps reflects cognitive theory and helps students see the relationships between concepts.
Which of the following situations accurately reflects effective collaboration between a teacher and a parent or guardian?
Ms. Wei receives a letter from Matt's father describing Matt's particular struggles, so she differentiates her lesson accordingly.

The parent has provided the teacher with relevant information, and the teacher has put that information to use, which demonstrates effective collaboration.
Which of the following teachers is scoring students' compositions using holistic scoring?
Mr. Pegg grades on the overall quality of the composition.

Holistic assessment is based on the overall quality of a student's work. Mr. Pegg may consider major elements of the content of the composition when responding to the work as a whole, but does not become overly concerned with any one aspect of the composition.
A student who has diabetes and needs accommodations in school is protected under which of the following?
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act protects those with a mental or physical impairment, such as an illness, a chronic condition (diabetes), or an injury, that substantially limits one or more life activities.
Which of the following statements about wait time is supported by research?
Increased wait time generates more student questions.

Research supports the fact that increased wait time increases the volume of student questions.
A teacher observes that the same group of students participates in class discussions, while others do not participate. Which of the following will be most effective in increasing the level of participation of all students?
Calling on students randomly

Calling on students randomly, in conjunction with allowing sufficient time for students to formulate answers, is the most effective way to increase the variety of participants.
According to the cognitive theory of learning, the most valid evidence that students have learned a body of information is that they can
Apply what they have learned in a new setting

From a cognitive learning perspective, learning involves the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge that is stored in the mind. Learning occurs when new knowledge is acquired or existing knowledge is modified by experience.
Some gifted students have been integrated into a regular classroom. The teacher can most appropriately meet the needs of the gifted students by doing which of the following?
Creating assignments for gifted students that allow them to explore the content in greater depth

Differentiating curricula for the gifted implies modifying the curriculum to meet students' differing learning rates, styles, interests, and abilities. One means of modification is creating assignments that allow gifted students to explore content in greater depth.
Megan's writing is repetitive and displays little author's voice and creativity. Which of the following should her teacher do first to best adjust instruction to improve Megan's writing skills?
Model for Megan during short, daily conferences how to include voice and creativity in her writing

By modeling, the teacher is providing Megan with specific guidance on voice and creativity and is giving her the opportunity to learn by observation.
Which of the following is an example of transfer of learning?
Applying the concepts of geometry to build a model of a gazebo

Transfer of learning occurs when a student takes what was learned in one context (geometry) and is able to apply it to another (building a model of a gazebo).
Which of the following developmental milestones is achieved during adolescence?
Distancing self from parents psychologically

According to research, it is characteristic of adolescent children to distance themselves from their parents or guardians psychologically to identify with a peer group and to fulfill the need to be independent from adults.
Mr.Young's middle school students are having difficulty with a project that requires them to keep a notebook in which they record careful, systematic, scientific observations and then write two possible hypotheses that could be tested on the basis of the observations. Which of the following theories will best help Mr. Young understand why so many of his students are having difficulty with the project?
Jean Piaget's theory on the stages of cognitive development

Piaget's classification of the stages of developmental readiness suggests that the students may not yet be ready to move from concrete observations (the concrete operational stage) to abstract hypotheses (the formal operational stage).
Which of the following activities best reflects a family-centered program and the promotion of parent partnerships with the school?
Relating classroom activities to the various needs and interests of children and families

By relating classroom activities to the needs and interests of students and families, the school promotes parent partnerships and a family-centered program.
Which of the following assessments can a teacher use to best determine whether a student is reading on grade level?
Achievement test

Achievement tests measure mastery of skills, so a teacher can use the results of the test to determine whether the student is on grade level.
A teacher wants to provide accommodations for a student that will be extensive at first and will gradually taper off so that the student may begin to work independently. Which of the following instructional practices best fits this description?
Scaffolded instruction

Scaffolded instruction is instruction that begins with extensive support followed by a gradual tapering of support.
By having students keep learning logs, Ms. Potter encourages her tenth-grade students to evaluate their own learning and to identify those learning strategies that seem to help them the most. In doing so, she is most likely to develop their ability in which of the following?
Metacognition

Metacognition is the intellectual process that enables an individual to step back from a particular learning experience and think about his or her ways of learning new things, preferred and most successful methods of learning, and strategies for most effectively using this knowledge in new learning situations.
Which of the following is the best example of a First Amendment right being exercised in the classroom?
Ms. Steel frequently holds debates and allows students to voice their opinions.

The First Amendment offers five freedoms: religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. By allowing students to voice their opinions frequently during class debates, the teacher is supporting freedom of speech.
A high school English teacher wants to incorporate interactive message boards and other social media activities into an upcoming unit of study. Which of the following would be the best resource for helping the teacher develop the activities?
The library media specialist

The library media specialists look at curriculum, assignments, and learning in terms of the information resources, processes, and technologies required for student success. The library media specialist could best assist the teacher in incorporating interactive message boards and other social media activities.
Which of the following descriptions best fits that of an intellectually gifted student?
Loren enjoys discussion of social issues and dislikes repetition in curricular activities.

Many gifted children dislike repetition.
Mr. Adamson's reading class is studying the racial integration of professional athletics. To engage the students' interest, he shares a memory about going with his grandfather to see Doug Williams, the first African American starting quarterback to win a Super Bowl. Which of the following types of memory is Mr. Adamson primarily using?
Episodic

Episodic memory refers to one's ability to recall personal experiences from the past. Mr. Adamson recalled a specific event and information from a childhood memory with his grandfather, employing his long-term episodic memory.
A teacher uses exit tickets during the last five minutes of math to assess the effectiveness of the lesson and plan for future instruction. Which of the following types of assessment does this best represent?
Formative

Formative assessments provide the teacher with feedback and information during the course of the instructional process and are not necessarily graded. Exit tickets are effective when used as a formative assessment to help the teacher plan instruction for future lessons.
Which of the following scenarios best represents a classical conditioning response by students?
Students become anxious and unsettled during testing.

Classical conditioning involves pairing a previous neutral stimulus (testing) with an unconditioned stimulus (anxiety).
Student: I can't find any information on my topic.
Teacher: Are you having trouble finding good resources for information?
Student: Yes, and I'm never going to. I want to change my topic.
Teacher: You sound frustrated. Where have you looked so far?


Which of the following best describes the teacher's strategy in the dialogue above?
Active listening

One primary component of active listening is to restate what the other person has said.
A science teacher is giving a lesson on microscopes. Which of the following actions during the lesson demonstrates a teacher-modeling strategy that best supports student learning?
Demonstrating how to change the magnification of the microscope setting

The teacher supports student learning by allowing students to learn by observation. In this case, the students observe the teacher change the magnification.
Which of the following activities is specifically associated with reflection about teaching practices?
Peer observation

Peer observation encourages reflection on teaching practices. Peer observation allows teachers to observe and offer feedback to benefit from each other's experience and expertise while promoting teaching excellence.
Which of the following best describes the degree to which an assessment provides consistent results?
Reliability

Reliability refers to the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results.
A teacher wants students to effectively use peer assessment to improve their writing. Which of the following is the best first step when guiding students in how to do so?
Establishing criteria for good writing

The best first step when using peer assessment in the classroom is to establish criteria. As a group, students determine what should be assessed and how criteria for successful completion of the communication task should be defined to provide the most helpful feedback to their peers.
Fred is a student in Mr. Hall's tenth-grade class. His records show that he has above-average ability, and he says he wants to succeed in class. However, in Mr. Hall's class, his participation and performance on most tasks are unsatisfactory. Which of the following practices will be most appropriate for encouraging Fred?
Assigning work to Fred in small steps and giving immediate feedback

Assigning work in small steps and supplying immediate feedback allows the student a greater sense of achievement.
Which of the following is a limitation of using a scoring guide for assessing student writing?
Students may be overwhelmed by the amount of information provided on the scoring guide.

There is generally a wealth of information on a scoring guide that can be overwhelming to students, which is a limitation of using this type of assessment.
Which of the following student activities is most likely to help students learn how to prepare for a job interview?
Role-playing as interviewers and interviewees for practice

A typical role-playing activity would have students taking on different roles as the interviewer or interviewee and would place them in different situations typical of a job interview setting so that students can experience what they should do in each situation, better preparing them for the actual event.
Which of the following strategies is used frequently in direct instruction?
Demonstration

Direct instruction is a teacher-centered instructional strategy. It emphasizes the use of demonstrations and lectures to present material to students.
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