123 terms

29. Brighton College: Medical Terminology

STUDY
PLAY
myel/o
bone marrow; spinal cord
myeloma
-oma = tumor; mass

benign tumor of the bone marrow
osteomyelitis
-itis = inflammation
oste/o = bone

inflammation of bone and bone marrow
osse/o; oste/o
bone
osteitis
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bone
osteochondritis
-itis = inflammation
chondr/o = cartilage

inflammation of the bone and cartilage
osteocyte
cyte = cell

mature bone cell
osteoma
-oma = tumor; mass

benign tumor of bone
osteotome
-tome = instrument used to cut

intrument to cut bone
ostetomy
-tomy = process of cutting; incision

process of cutting bone
endosteum
-um = structure
endo - within

inner lining of the shaft of a long bone (tibia/ulna)
periosteum
-um = structure
peri = around

the structure around the shaft of a long bone
crani/o
skull
craniofacial
-al = pertaining to
faci/o = face

pertaining to the face and skull
cranioplasty
-plasty = surgical repair or reconstruction
surgical repair of the skull
craniotomy
-tomy = incision; process of cutting
incision into the skull
mandibul/o
mandible; lower jaw
mandibular
-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the lower jaw
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
-ar = pertaining to
tempor/o = temporal bone

pertaining to the joint between the temporal bone and the lower jaw
maxill/o
maxilla; upper jaw
maxillary
-ary = pertaining to

peratining to the upper jaw
chondr/o
cartilage
achondroplasia
-plasia = development; formation,
a- = no; not; inadequate

inadequate cartilage formation resulting in a type of dwarfism
chondrocyte
-cyte = cell

cartilage cell
chondroma
-oma = tumor; mass

benign tumor of cartilage
cost/o
rib
costochondral
-al = pertaining to
chondr/o = cartilage

pertaining to the ribs & cartilage
subcostal
-al = pertaining to
sub = under
pertaining to under the skin
stern/o
sternum; breastbone
costosternal
-al = pertaining to
cost/o = ribs

pertaining to the ribs and sternum
sternotomy
-tomy = process of cutting; incision

process of cutting the sternum
xiph/o
sword
xiphiod
-oid = resembling

distal portion of the sternum; literally means "resembling a sword"
cervic/o
neck
cervical
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the neck
coccyg/o
coccyx; tailbone
coccygeal
-eal = pertaining to
pertaining to the tailbone
lumbodynia
-dynia = pain
pain in the lower back; also known as lumbago
lumbosacral joint
-al = pertaining to
scar/o = sacrum

pertaining to the joint between L5 and the sacrum
sacr/o
sacrum
sacrococcygeal joint
-eal = pertainint to
coccyg/o = tailbone

pertaining to the joint between the sacrum and the coccyx
spondyl/o
vertebra
spondylitis
-itis = inflammation
inflammation of the vertebrae
spondylopathy
-pathy = disease
any disease of the vertebrae
thorac/o
chest
thoracolumbar
-ar = pertaining to
lumb/o = lower back; loins

pertaining to the chest and the lower back
vertebr/o
vertebra
costovertebral joint
-al = pertaining to
cost/o = rib

pertaining the joint between a rib
intervertebral
-al = pertaining to
inter - between

pertaining to between the vertrebrae
clavicul/o
clavicle; collarbone
sternoclavcular joint
-ar = pertaining to
stern/o = sternum; breastbone

pertaining to the joint between the sternum and the clavicle
infraclavicular
-ar = pertaining to
infra = below, beneath

pertaining to below the collarbone
scapul/o
scapula
subscapular
-ar = pertaining to
sub = under; below

pertaining to hthe scapula
brachi/o
arm
brachial
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the arm
brachiocephalic
-ic = pertaining to
cephal/o = head

pertaining to the arm and head
carp/o
wrist
carpectomy
-ectomy = excision; surgical removal

excision of the carpal (wrist) bone
olecran/o
olecranon (elbow)
olecranal
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the olcranon, a bony projection on the ulna
phalang/o
phalanx; one of the bones making up the fingers or toes
interphalangeal joint
-eal = pertaining to
inter = between

pertaining to the joint between the phalanges
radi/o
radius (one of the bones of the lower arm)
radiocarpal joint
-al = pertaining to
carpa/o = wrist

pertaining to the joint between the radius and the wrist
uln/o
ulnar (one of the bones of the lower arm)
ulnar
-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the ulna
acetabul/o
acetabulum; hip socket
acetabular
-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the hip socket
acetabuloplasty
-plasty = surgical repair or reconstruction

surgical repair of the hip socket
ili/o
hip
iliosacral joint
-al = pertaining to
sacr/o = sacrum

pertaining to the joint between the hip and sacrum; also known as the sacroiliac joint.
pelvic
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to the pelvis
calcane/o
heel
calcaneal
-eal = pertaining to

pertaining to the heel
iliofemoral joint
-al = pertaining to
ili/o = hip

pertaining to the joint between the hip and the femur
fibul/o
fibula
fibulocalcaneal
-eal = pertaining to
calcane/o = heel
pertaining tot he fibula and the heel
patell/a; patell/o
patella; kneecap
patellapexy
-plexy = surgical fixation

surgical fixation of the kneecap
infrapatellar
-ar = pertaining to
infra- = below

pertaining to below the kneecap
suprapatellar
-ar = pertaining to
supra- = above

pertaining to above the kneecap
tibi/o
tibia; shin
tibiofibular joint
-ar = pertaining to
fibul/o = fibula

pertaining to the joint between the tibia and fibula
arthr/o; articul/o
joint
arthtalgia
-algia = pain

joint pain; also known as arthrodynia
arthritis
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the joint
NOTE: types include, Osteoarthritis (OA) which is degeneration of the articular cartilage due to overuse and resulting in painful movement of the joint. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system fails to recognize its own cells as normal and the body's tissues are attacked as if they were foreign invaders.
arthropathy
-pathy = disease

any disease of the joint
arthroplasty
-plasty = surgical repair or reconstruction

surgical repair of a joint; usually refers to the total or partial replacement of the knee or hip joint with an prosthetic (artificial) device.
arthroscopy
-scopy = process of visual examination

process of visually examining the joint cavity by using an arthroscope.
NOTE: In arthroscopic surgery, a video camera takes images of a joint cavity and displays the images on a TV monitor. With this technique, and using local anesthetic, the joint can be worked on with good visualization of the entire joint. Recovery time is minimal and hospital stay is reduces,
interarticular
-ar = pertaining to
inter = between

pertaining to between the joints
burs/o
bursa (sac filled with synovial fluid located around the joints)
bursitis
-itis = inflammation
inflamed bursa
bursectomy
-ectomy = excision; surgical removal

excision of the bursa
-blast
immature
osteoblast
oste/o = bone

immature bone cells
-centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid; aspiration
arthrocentesis
arthr/o = joint

surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluid; aspiration of a joint cavity
-clasis
surgical fracture or refracture
osteclasis
oste/o = bone

surgical fracture or refracture of bone
-clast
breakdown
osteoclast
oste/o = bone

bone cells that breakdown bone
-desis
surgical fusion; surgical binding
arthrodesis
arthr/o = joint

surgical fusion of a joint
-gensis
formation
osteogensis
oste/o = bone

bone formation; also known as ossication
-malacia
softening
chondromalacia
chondr/o = cartilage

softening of the cartilage
osteomalacia
oste/o = bone

softening of the bone
-osis
abnormal condition
kyphosis
kyph/o = humpback

exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine; humpback
lordosis
lord/o = swayback

exaggerated anterior curvature of the thoracic spine; swayback
scoliosis
scoli/o = curved

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
-physis
to grow
diaphysis
dia- = through

the shaft of a long bone
epiphysis
epi- = on; upon

the bulbous portion of a long bone on both sides of the shaft
-porosis
porous
osteoporosis
oste/o = bone

loss of bone density resulting in open spaces with the body structure.
-sarcoma
malignant tumor of connective tissue
chondrosarcoma
chondr/o = cartilage
malignant tumor of cartilage
osteosarcoma
oste/o = bone

malignant tumor of bone; also known as osteogenic sarcoma.
ortho-
straight
orthopedics
-ic = pertaining to
ped/o = child

surgical specialty dealing with the correction of deformities and dysfunctions of the skeletal system.