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Basic of Electricity

active electrode

Electrode used on the area to be treated.

alternating current (AC)

Rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction.

amp (A)

unit that measures the amount of an electric current (quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor)


Process of forcing liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole.


Positive electrode

blue light

theraputic light that should only be used on bare oily skin; contains few heat rays, is the least penetrating and has some germicidal and chemical benefits


process of forcing acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole


Negative electrode

circuit breaker

switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of overload

complete circuit

The path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its original source.


any substance, material, or medium that easily transmits electricity.


apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current


galvanic current is used to create an alkaline chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum and debris.

direct current (DC)

constant, even-flowing, current that travels in one direction only

electric current

a flow of electricity along a conductor


form of energy that when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects; a flow of elctrons.


applicator for directing the electric current from machine to clients skin

electromagnetic radiation

energy in the form of electromagnetic waves,also called radiant energy because it carries, or radiates, energy though space on waves.


The use of electrical devices for therapeutic benefits.

faradic current

An alternating & interrupted current that produces mechanical reaction without a chemical effect


special device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit

galvanic current

constant and direct current, having a positive and negative pole, uses a positive & negative pole to produce the chemical changes of desincrustation, an iontophoresis.

inactive electrode

Opposite pole from the active electrode.

infared rays

invisible rays that have longer wavelengths, penetrate deeper, and produce more heat than visible light does

insulator (nonconductor)

A substance that does not easily transmit electricity.

iontophoresis (ionization)

process of introducing water-soluble products into the skin by using electric current such as that from the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine

kilowatt (K)

1,000 watts


an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; a medical device used for hair removal and skin treatments.

light therapy

the application of light rays to the skin for the treatment of wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal.


a device that mimics the body's natural electrical energy to reeducate and tone facial muscles; improves circulation and increases collagen and elastin production.


one-thousandth of an ampere.


currents used in electrical facial and scalp treatments

ohm (O)

the unit ofelectrical resistance in an electric current


a form of treatment for various skin conditions using artificial light wavelengths from the ultraviolet (blue light) part of the skin's spectrum.


process by which light from a laser is turned into heat.


2-3 prong connector at the end of an electrical cord that connects an apparatus to an electrical outlet.


negative or positive pole of an electric current.


apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current

red light

Therapeutic light used on dry skin in combination with oils and creams; penetrates the deepest and produces the most heat.

sinusoidal current

alternating current similar to faradic current; produces mechanical contractions and is used during scalp and facial manipulations.

tesla high-frequency current

Thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration; also called violet ray.

ultraviolet (UV) rays

invisible rays that have short wavelengths, are the least penetrating rays, produce chemical effects, and kill germs; also called cold rays or actinic rays

visible light

the prinmary source of light used in a facial and scalp treaments

volt (V)

unit that measures the pressuce or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor.

watt (W)

measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second.


distance between two successive peaks of electromagnetic waves

white light

referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all the visible rays of the spectrum.

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