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Ch 1 Defining Development
Terms in this set (23)
Science of Human Development
Seeks to understand how and why people-all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age-change over time. Growth can be multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic
Based on observations, repeated experiences, verifiable experiments, not theoretical
a way to answer questions using emperical research and data based conclusions.
5 steps of scientific method
1. begin with curiosity: Pose a question.
2. develop a hypothesis: shape question into hypothesis (specific prediction that can be tested)
3. test the hypothesis: design and conduct research to gather emperical evidence (data).
4. draw conclusions: use the evidence to support or refute hypothesis.
5. report the results: share the data, conclusions, and alternative explanations.
Often becomes the 6th step: teh repetition of a study, using differen participants.
Nature Vs Nurture Debate
Nature refers to the influence of genes that people inherit.
Nurture refers to environmental influences, beginning with the health and diet of embryo's mother and continuing lifelong: including family, school, culture, society.
Bothe genes and the environment
Affect every characteristic, nature always affects nurture, and then nurture affects nature.
A time when a particular type of develoopmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen. Ex: 28-54 day period after conception important for the arms legs hands feet fingers and toes to develop in infants.
A time when a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen later. For Ex: early childood is considered a sensitive period for langauge learning.
The Lifespan Perspective
An approach to the study hof human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood.
Development is Multidirectinal
Overtime, human characteristics change in every direction. Several major theorists describe stages of development Freud, Erickson, Piaget, others view development as a continuous process. (e.g. month after the death of a spouse, widowers entered nursing homes 3 times more often that did other men of similar age
Development is Multicontextual
HC + SES
Ocurring in many contexts, including physical surroundings (climmate, noise, population, density, etc.) and family constellations.
First emphasized the need to consider many contexts, recommended an ecological-systems appraoch.
Ecological-Systems Approach (The Ecological Model)
The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute life. Renamed Biological
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