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Reasons for improving communication

Improve academic performance and grades.
Job performance and promotions.

Personal growth(emotionally express ourselves and our personality).

Social growth: we live surrounded by people. To communicate with others.

Cooperative action: we have little. Control over our environment and need others to help solve problems, organize change in social, political, & environmental areas.

Types of communication

Intrapersonal: process in which we share information,meaning, and feelings with the self.

Interpersonal: process in which we share information,meaning, and feelings with at least one other person.

Public speaking: one person speaking to many.

Mass communication: communication delivered to large anonymous groups of people who are watching, listening, or reading the transmitted message.

Interpersonal communication types.

Person to person: involves two parties (dyad)(doctor and patient)

Small-group: three or more people in physical proximity who dynamically interact over a common concern.

Purpose of models of communication

Organize: they help organize the essential features or elements of communication and show how these relate to each other.

Predict: they help predict or forecast what probably will happen in our conversation with others.

Measure: amount of speaking a person or channel can accommodate.

Elements of oral communication.


Message formulation: conceive the idea, decide on our intent toward the listener. To inform, persuade, exchange greetings.

Conditioning effects: culture, knowledge of subject, speaking skills, attitude, listeners estimate of our worth and competence as a speaker.

Determine the meaning to convey to listener.


Physical setting


Encoding: is the process of translating an already conceived idea into a message appropriate for transmission to the listeners.


Decoding: translating the message received into comprehensible information, meanings, and feelings
Four steps: hearing and seeing the message.
Interpreting the message to determine the meaning.
Evaluating the message from the listeners point of view.
Responding to the message overtly or covertly.

Process of oral communication

Dynamic: it is always changing.

Systemic: all the elements are interrelated to produce a meaningful interaction.

Continuous: no beginning/no end

Transactional: no encounter is the same as the previous one.

Irreversable: once we say something we can not erase or take it back.


Able to express feelings positive or negative and interpersonally effective.

Locus of control

External: blames others or outside forces.
Internal: blames self. Control rests with us.

Shult'z interpersonal schema

Inclusion: interact with people to establish or maintain relationship. We need to feel part of a group or belong.

Control: need to be influenced and to control over others.

Affection: relates to being liked or loved. Obtain affection through love and intimacy.


Values: help guide our behaviors. What is good/bad, right/wrong, true/false, positive/negative. Universal values: individuality, peace, punctuality, respect for elders, equality.

Beliefs: judgement about what is true or probable. Three types experiential, informational, and inferential.

Attitude: learned tendencies to respond favorably or unfavorably toward a given object of orientation.


Perception: the process in which people select, organize, and interpret sensory stimulation into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.

The perception process

Attention: selective attention.

Innate characteristic

Innate characteristic: traits that has been with us since birth.
Psychological limitations:
Emotional state:
Selective perception:

Johari window/disclosing the self

Open: feelings and behaviors known to ourselves and others.

Blind: feelings and behaviors known to other but not to us.
Hidden: inner-self part known to us but not revealed to others.

Unknown: feelings and behaviors unknown both to us and others..


Interviewing: is a dynamic interaction between two parties, interviewer and interviewee who meet to fulfuill a predetermined purpose of one or both parties, using questions and answers as the means of achieving the purpose.

Establishing rapport

Self introduction
Firm hand shake
Eye contact
Friendly voice

Know well, primary and secondary questions

Primary: open, close, and leading

Secondary: summary, extension, echo,direct/indirect, confrontational, repetition.

Nature of self-concept

Self-concept: is the total collection of attitudes, beliefs, and values an individual holds with respect to his or her behavior, ability, body, and worth as a person.

Formation of self-concept

Formed in early childhood: formed from experience and interactions.

interaction with significant others: parents, relatives, and peers.

Group membership: church, school, neighborhood groups. Culture group.

Roles:at school a student, at home a son or daughter, at work an employee. Gender roles.


Self-disclosure: voluntarily telling others I formation about ourselves that they are unlikely to learn from other source.

What to disclose.

We speak best in situations wherein mutual self-disclosure is possible.a) to the right person, b) to the right degree disclosing all or part of the experience, c) for the right reasons, d)vat the right time, e) in the right place.

Attitudes, opinions, tastes, interests,feelings about people, work and money, likes, dislikes, loves, hates, fears, anxieties, and self-perceptions.

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