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Chapter 18 - Foreign Policy and National Security

Think tanks do all of the following except
Avoid attachments to universities
By foreign policy, we mean
the nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies to achieve them
Diplomacy refers to
the settling of disputes and conflicts among nations by peaceful methods
Assistance to other nations in the form of grants, loans or credits on products is called
economic aid
Diplomacy failed before
the First Gulf War
The _____ is/are the most successful example of US diplomacy to encourage peace in the Middle East
Camp David Accords
A policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized US foreign policy toward Europe during most of the 1800s, is known as
isolationist foreign policy
The Monroe Doctrine was an example of
isolationist foreign policy
The sending of experts with technical skills to aid other nations is called
technical assistance
The National Security Council (NSC) is
an advisory body to the president on foreign policy matters
The set of policies having to do with the US armed forces is called
defense policy
Foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the nation's independence and political and economic integrity is known as
national security policy
National security policy is
foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the nation's independence and political and economic integrity
Policy that is concerned with the safety and defense of the nation is known as
national security policy
National security policy is a
policy that is concerned with the safety and defense of the nation
The steps by which foreign policy goals are decided and acted on is known as
the foreign policy process
Moral idealism is a philosophy that
sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct
Political realism is a philosophy that
sees each nation as acting in its own interest regardless of moral considerations
A major determinant of US foreign policy in the formative years was
that the US was very weak militarily
During the 1800s, the United States generally
stayed out of European conflicts and politics but pursued an expansionist policy in this hemisphere
The Monroe Doctrine stated that
European nations must not establish new colonies in the western hemisphere or intervene in the affairs of the western hemisphere
The US policy that stated that European nations must not establish new colonies in the western hemisphere or intervene in the affairs of the western hemisphere is known as the
Monroe Doctrine
United States foreign policy toward Europe during most of 1800s was
America obtained which of the following possessions as a result of the Spanish-American War
The Philippines and Puerto Rico
After World War I, the United States returned to a state of "normalcy" in foreign policy, which meant
a reduction in military forces, defense spending, and a return to isolationism
American isolationism
came to an end with the bombing of the US naval base at Pearl Harbor
The United States was the only major country to emerge from World War II with
nuclear weapons
The Soviet bloc
consisted of the Soviet Union and eastern European countries with Communist regimes
The cold War
was the political, ideological and economic confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II
The doctrine of containment set forth by George F. Kennan stated that
the United States should seek to contain communist power within existing boundaries
During the Cold War, there was
no direct military conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union
All of the following are true about the War in Vietnam except
the United States assumed the role of supporting South Vietnam because Britain was no longer up to the task
The French word detente means
a relaxation of tensions
The policy of detente with the Soviet Union was developed by
President Nixon and his secretary of state Henry Kissinger
Russian President Vladimir Putin
would face popular discontent without the huge revenues produced by Russian oil supplies
The policy adopted in 1947 to halt Communist expansion in southeastern Europe is known as the
Truman Doctrine
The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) was agreed to in 1972 in order to
stabilize the nuclear arms competition between the United States and the Soviet Union
The term used to describe the division of Europe between the Soviet bloc and the West is known as
the Iron Curtain
Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the
Soviet Union was divided into a number of states known as the Russian Federation
As a result of planning for the post-Cold War world, the American military was downsized by _____ between 1990 and 2001
Russia faces a problem of terrorism resulting from
demands for independence by Chechnya
Goals of the al Qaeda terrorist network have apparently included
getting US forces out of Saudi Arabia
in 2002, President George W. Bush enunciated a new foreign policy doctrine that held, in part, that
the United States was prepared to wage preemptive war against perceived threats with or without allies
Saddam Hussein's annexation of Kuwait in 1990
was the most clear-cut case of aggression against an independent state in half a century
George W. Bush described the following three nations as an "axis of evil"
Iraq, Iran, and North Korea
During the Second Gulf War in 2003, the Iraqi army
disbanded itself and went home
Sunnis and Shiites
are two branches of the religion of Islam with somewhat different beliefs and traditions
A majority of the population of Iraq is
Shiite Arab
It is believed that _____ is supporting the insurgency in Iraq
Nuclear proliferation became an even greater issue than before in 1998 when _____ detonated nuclear devices
India and Pakistan
Today, for the United States, the greatest concern resulting from nuclear proliferation is that
nuclear devices could fall into the hands of terrorists
If America has granted another nation Normal Trade Relations (NTR) status,
we must treat the trade of that nation as well as we treat the trade of the country that receives most favorable treatment
All of the following have been sources of tension between China and America except
China's failure to offer support to America immediately following the events of 9/11
The internationally recognized solution to the Israeli-Palestinian dispute is that
Isreal yields the West Bank and Gaza strip to the Palestinians in return for security guarantees and Palestinian abandonment of any right of return to Israel proper
In January 2006, _____ won a majority of the seats in the Palestinian legislature, and alarming development since it has called for the destruction of Israel
the militant group Hamas
In the summer of 2006, Israel went to war with _____ in Lebanon
the militant group Hezbollah
During the early 2000, AIDS spread throughout _____, infecting millions of adults, leaving orphaned children, and devastating the economies of numerous nations
Southern Africa
Presidents have been largely successful in getting treaties
through the Senate
Since World War II executive agreements have
accounted for almost 95 percent of the understandings reached between the United States and other nations
The state department is
the executive agency that is most directly concerned with foreign affairs
One of the problems for the State Department domesticall is that
it has only "negative constituents" citizens who oppose the government's policies
Citizens who openly oppose the government's policies are known as
negative constituents
Which of the following is not a member of the National Security Council
The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
The government agencies that are involved in gathering information about the capabilites and intentions of foreign governments are known as
the intelligence community
_____ served in the first term of George W. Bush as National Security Advisor and in the second term as Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice
The intelligence community includes all of the following except
Department of Defense
The Department of Defense
is larger than any other federal department
The government agencies that gather information about the capabilites and intentions of foreign governments or that engage in covert actions are known as the
intelligence community
One of the major outcomes of the Vietnam War was
a new interest in the balance of power between Congress and the president on foreign policy questions
In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Act, which
limited the president's use of troops in military action without congressional approval
The attentive public refers to
that proportion of the general public that pays attention to policy issues
The military-industrial complex
was something that President Eisenhower warned of in a speech when leaving office
China currently produces
more steel than the United States and Japan combined
Only four members of the 107th Congress
had children in one of the military services
More than _____ people in Darfur have died since 2003, as a direct result of the Sudanese government's actions to displace an entire population