25 terms

WHI.8 Islamic Civilization

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form the basis of the Islamic religion
the revelations of Muhammad
the Prophet of Islam
Muhammad
location of Mecca and Medina
Arabian Peninsula
early Muslim cities
Mecca and Medina
geographic extent of first Muslim empire
across Asia and African and into Spain
Allah
Arabic word for God
Qur'an
the word of God
Five Pillars of Islam
five acts of worship required of all Muslims - faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage
basic Islamic beliefs
- monotheism
- Qur'an
- Five Pillars of Islam
- accepted Judeo-Christian prophets including Moses and Jesus
this faciliatate the expand of Muslim rule in the three centuries after Muhammad's death
weakened political empires in Persia and Byzantium
facilitated trade and stimulated intellectual activity
political unity and the Arabic language
Islam spread to -
- the Fertile Crescent, Iran and Central Asia
Islam was able to expand despite -
- great distances, desert environments and mountain barriers
the Death of Ali led to -
- the Sunni-Shi'a division
Sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Shi'a
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
cities conqered by Islam
Jerusalem and Damascus
location the Islamic capital was moved to
Baghdad
Battle of Tours
site of a Muslim defeat
Baghdad fell to these invaders
Mongols
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven
mosaics
patterns or pictures made by embedding small pieces of stone or glass in cement on surfaces such as walls and floors
arabic alphabet
the alphabet of 28 characters derived from Aramaic and used for writing Arabic languages
arabic numerals
were adapted from India and included zero
Algebra
A branch of mathematics pioneered by Islamic mathematician al-Khwarizimi in which letters are used to represent unknown numbers to generalize arithmetic.

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