60 terms

USI.9 The Civil War

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types of differences between the North and the South
cultural, economic and constitutional
key issues that divided the nation
- slavery
- culture
- economics
- the Constitution
the North, culturally
mainly urban society in which people held jobs in cities
the South, culturally
primarily and agricultural society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations
effect of cultural differences between the North and the South
people found it difficult to agree on social and political issues
the North, economically
a manufacturing region
tariffs
a tax on foreign goods brought into a country
the North's view of tariffs
people favored tariffs that protected factory owners and workers from foreign competition
the South's view of tariffs
opposed tariffs that would cause prices of manufactured goods to increase and that might cause Great Britain to stop buying cotton
believed the nation was a union and could not be divided
North
the North's view of the federal government
the national government's power was supreme over the states
the South's view of the federal government
believed they had the power to declare any national law illegal
the North's view of slavery
slavery should be abolished for moral reasons
the South's view of slavery
felt the abolition of slavery would destroy their economy
Missouri Compromise
(1820) allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state while Maine was a free state
Compromise of 1850
allowed California to enter the Union as a free state while the Southwest territories would decide the issue for themselves
Kansas-Nebraska Act
people in each state would decide the slavery issue through "popular sovereignty"
popular sovereignty
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
event preceding the South's secession from the Union
Lincoln's election
the beginning of the Civil War
Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, South Carolina
believed states had freely joined the Union and could freely leave it
South
seceded from the Union
Southern states that were dependent upon labor-intensive cash crops
stayed in the Union
Northernmost slave states and free states
states that seceded
- Alabama - Arkansas
- Florida - Georgia
- Louisiana - Mississippi
- North and South Carolina
- Tennessee - Texas
- Virginia
border states
- Delaware
- Kentucky
- Maryland
- Missouri
free states
- California - Connecticut
- Illinois - Indiana
- Iowa - Kansas
- Maine - Massachusetts
- Michigan - Minnesota
- New Jersey - New Hampshire
- New York - Ohio
- Oregon - Pennsylvania
- Vermont - Rhode Island
- West Virginia - Wisconsin
West Virginia
western counties of Virginia refused to secede from the Union
Abraham Lincoln
- president of the United States
- opposed the spread of slavery
- determined to preserve the Union, by force if necessary
- believed the United States was one nation
- wrote the Gettysburg Address
Gettysburg Address
stated that the Civil War was to preserve a government "of the people, by the people and for the people"
Jefferson Davis
president of the Confederate States of America
Ulysses S. Grant
general of the Union army that defeated Lee
Robert E. Lee
- leader of the Army of Northern Virginia
- was offered the command of the Union forces but chose not to fight against Virginia
- opposed secesstion but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
- urged Southerners to accept defeat and reunite as one
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
a skilled Confederate general from Virginia
Frederick Douglass
an enslaved African American who escaped to the North and became and abolitionist
influenced important developments in the war, such as major battles
location and topography
first Battle of Manassas
first major battle
Bull Run
another name for First Manassas
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by President Lincoln, it made "freeing the slaves" tje new focus of the war
Battle of Vicksburg
divided the South as the North controlled the Missiissippi River
Battle of Gettysburg
the turning point of the war; the North repelled Lee's invasion
Appomattox Court House
the site of Lee's surrender to Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Southern ports blockaded by the Union
- Savannah
- Charleston
- New Orleans
capital of the Union
Washington, D.C.
capital of the Confederacy
Richmond, Virginia
battle where control of the high ground was crucial
Gettysburg
how location and topography influenced critical developments in the war
- Union blockade of Southern ports
- control of the Mississippi RIver
- struggle to capture capital cities
- control of the high ground
life on the battlefield and on the home front
extremely harsh
home front
all the people in a country who are not in the military during wartime
family member and friends during the war
often pitted against one another
Southern troops as the war went on
became younger and more poorly equipped and clothed
examples of the devastation experienced by the South
the burning of Richmond and Atlanta
many soldiers died from -
disease and exposure
Clara Barton
civil war nurse who created the American Red Cross
combat
brutal and often man to man
women
left to run business in the North and farms and plantations in the South
an effect of the collapse of the Confederacy
made Confederate money worthless
the Confederacy used enslaved African Americans as -
- ship workers, cooks, laborers and camp workers
African Americans and the Union
- some fought in the Union Army
- the Union moved to enlist African American sailors and soldiers
African American soldiers
- paid less than white soldiers
- discriminated against
- served in segregated units under the command of white officers
Robert Smalls
an African American sailor and later a Union naval captain highly honored for his feats of bravery and heroism; became a Congressmen after the war