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43 terms

AP United States History Key Words Review

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James Oglethorpe
established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
The Enlightenment
emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity
Benjamin Franklin
connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan
The Great Awakening
began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities
George Whitefield
powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity
Jonathan Edwards
Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance, wrote "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
New Lights vs. Old Lights
New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independent of each other
Albany Plan of Union
colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect
French and Indian War
French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britain
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
Salutary Neglect
Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
Writs of Assistance
search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis
Townshend Act (1767)
similar to Navigation; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
Sugar Act
increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs
Stamp Act
taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
Stamp Act Congress
held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
Virginia Resolves
"no taxation without representation," introduced by Patrick Henry
Currency Act
prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
Virtual Representation
all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote
The Loyal Nine
group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city
Sons of Liberty
organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation
Declaratory Act
allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say
Boston Massacre
British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
Committees of Correspondence
committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self¬government, cooperation between colonies
Tea Act (1773)
intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)
Boston Tea Party
peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians
Quebec Acts
former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony
Suffolk Resolves
organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain
Olive Branch Petition
politely demanded from the king a cease¬fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts,. guarantee of American rights
Thomas Paine, Common Sense
stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions
George Washington
American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule
Whigs (Patriots)
most numerous in New England, fought for independence
Tories (Loyalists)
fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy
British strengths and weaknesses
British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt
Colonial strengths and weaknesses
fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles
Battle of Saratoga
American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
Valley Forge
scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
Battle of Yorktown
last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies
Treaty of Paris (1783)
full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
American society during the Revolution
British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved
Federalists and Republicans
the two political parties that formed following Washington's presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments
Washington's Farewell Address
warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency