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54 terms

APES Chapter 4 test

Natural Selection
Within a popultion and due to competition between individuals, those individuals with an advantage will survive to pass their genes on to the next generation
The movement of tectonic plates influences evolution by
the changing of location of continents causing some species to be geographically isolated from others
The Bible
Is the only thing that evidence for evolution of life does not come from
A false statement
By definition the fittest animals are the strongest and the largest animals
Plants, herbivores, pollinators, flowers, plant roots, fungi, parasites, and hosts [All answers]
Coevolution can involve the interaction of--
10 million years
It takes on the order of _____ years for adaptive radiations to rebuild biological diversity after a mass extinction
Way of life
An organism's nich is analogous to its....
Changes in weather
Patterns of speciation and extinction are least likely to be affected by...
A change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called...
The location where a species lives
An ecologicall niche includes all of the following except...
Speciation and extinction
Biodiversity is believed to be the result of...
Earth has experienced over a dozen mass extinctions
Which of the following statements about extinction is false...
A source of new genetic material
Mutations are...
All are true
Which of the following are true? New species can arise when individuals of two distinct species crossbreed to produce a hybrid, genetic information can be exchanged when one species feeds upon' infects' or comes into close contact with another species, speciation through hybridization and gene transfer can occur rapidly when compared to millions of years for convential Darwinian evolution through natural selection
X rays, radioactivity, certain chemicals, ultraviolet light, can all be
Causes of mutations
Anaerobic prokaryotes-photosynthetic prokaryotes-aerobic prokaryotes-eukaryotes-multicellular organisms
Most likely sequence for biological evolution of life is...
It can only eat one type of food
A hummingbird would be considered a specialist species because
Convergent evolution
Geological isolation is least likely to give rise to...
Divergent evolution
The process which one species evolves into a variety of species is called...
Any heritable trait that enables an organism to survive through natural selection and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions is called...
Reproduction must be asexual
If not a condition necessaryfor biological evolution to occur
A punctuated equilibrium hypothesis
Gould's view of macroevolution as long periods of relativity little change interrupted by short periods of relatively rapid change is best described as...
The change of gene pool of one species leads to the change of the gene pool of another species...
A steady state hypothesis
Darwin's description of macroevolution as an accumulation of steady, small evolutionary changes is best described as...
The fossil record represents 99% of all species that have ever existed
When local environmental conditions change, species may become extinct through background extinction
Selective breeding is a method of artificial selection
Geographic isolation and reproductive isolation are the two processes that affect the number and types of species on earth
In speciation, two species interbreed to form one new species
Exctinction is the permanent loss of genetic diversity
Mutations are beneficial
Evolution comes about only through the process of natural selection
Survival of the fittest refers to those individuals that leave the most offspring
Genetic engineering involves making a modified gene, making a transgenic cell, and then growing a genetically altered organism
Use of genetically engineered animals to act as biofactories for producing drugs, vaccines, antibodies, hormones, industrial chemicals such as plastics and detergents, and human body organs.
Two or more species interacting and applying selective pressures on each other that can lead each to undergo adaptations
Gene splicing
the insertion of a foreign gene into an organism to give it a benefitial genetic trait
Mass extinction
We are currently on the sixth of these
Transgenic organism
Organisms that have been genetically engineered by use of recombinant DNA technology
Geographic isolation
Results in divergent evolution
Specialist species
Species with a narrow ecological niche
Differential reproduction
The occurrence in whcih individuals with adaptive genetic traits produce more live offspring than do organisms without such traits
Background extinction
The normal extinction of various species from changes in local environmental conditions
Fundamental niche
The full potential range of physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if it does not face competition from any other species
Realized niche
In order to survive and avoid competition for resources, the are within a particular community or ecosystem actually utilized by an organism
Generalist species
Organism with broad ecological niche
Any genetically controlled structural, physiological, or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survvive and reproduce under a given set of environmenta conditions
Artificial selection
Selective breeding
A change in the genetic structure of a population over time
Random changes in the structure/number of DNA molecules in a cell
Natural selection
Process by which a particular benefitical gene (or set of genes) is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes
Chemical or form of radiation that causes inheritable changes in DNA
Endemic species
Organism found only within one area
Ecological niche
Total way of life or role of a species within an ecosystem

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