38 terms

8th Grade Social Studies for STAAR

establishment of settlers and traders from a nation in an area outside the nation's boundaries; European nations established colonial empires for "gold, god, and glory" (economic, religious, and political or social reasons)
first permanent British settlement in North America was founded at Jamestown, Virginia
Pilgrims signed Mayflower Compact and arrived in Plymouth Colony
there were 13 British colonies
political competition
European rivalries caused nations to compete with each other to establish colonial empires throughout the world
religious freedom
some colonies were founded for religious reform or to escape religious persecution
economic gain
some colonies were founded as business ventures by charter companies funded by private investors
some colonies laws created a different kind of society
indentured servant
person who worked a set number of years without wages in exchange for their passage
to reform or purify Church of England
to escape persecution and separate from Church of England
to escape religious persecution in Europe
to escape religious persecution in England
plantation system
plantations large farms produced cash crops for export including tobacco indigo and rice required much more than one family's labor
indentured servants
conditions in Europe improved fewer servants
transatlantic slave trade
triangular trade route moved slaves cash crops and manufactured goods among European, West African, and colonial ports
cultural conflicts and constributions
fur traders and settlers conflicted with French and Indians in west establishment of colonies with more political, religious freedoms treaty between Penn and Indians
French and Indian War
British won in 1759 France ceded land
New England Colonies: human characteristics
settled mostly by white Puritians who fled Europe for religious reasons mostly intolerant of other religious strong work ethic
New England Colonies: geography
poor farm land rocky hilly nad cold climate rich fishing and timber resources
New England Colonies: economy
ship building fishing sailing and crafts
Middle Colonies: human characteristics
settled mostly by white Protestants of different faiths for religious and economic reasons
Middle Colonies:geography
good farm land fur resources and cool climate
Middle Colonies:economy
farming, furs
Southern Colonies: human characteristics
settled mostly for economic reasons slave population grew beginning in late 17th century
Southern Colonies: geography
good farm land, warm climate
Southern Colonies: economy
agrarian; many small farms; plantations exported cash crops
first great awakening
emotional sermons at revival meetings in 1730s made faith more personal for many whites and blacks
representative government
power and right to govern come from the people who choose leaders to make and enforce the law on their behalf
philosophy of reason thinking as guide for society
argued for separation of powers executive legislative and judicial
John Locke
argued for government by consent of the governed and the natural rights of men
Magna Carta
British power shared by monarchy and Parliment
English Bill of Rights
British protected individual rights elected Parliment must approve taxes
Mayflower Compact
plan for self-government signed by Pilgrims in 1620 promised to obey laws for the good of the colony
Virginia House of Burgessess
first elected lawmaking body group in colonies; colonial legistlatures shared power with royal governors
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
first example of a constitution in the colonies, led by Thomas Hooker; expanded right to vote to all freemen
William Penn
provided leadership for of self-government based on personal virtues and Quaker religious beliefs