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chapter 8 thinking, language & intelligence


mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving and using knowledge

which area of the brain has the most to do with thinking?

frontal lobe

what are the three components of thinking?

mental imaging, concept, & language

mental image

mental representation of a previously stored sensory experience, including visual, auditory etc.


mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristic

What are the three way we learn concepts?

artificial concepts, natural concepts, & hierarchies

artificial concepts

formed by logical and specific rules

natural concepts

formed by everyday life experiences


group concepts into subcategories within broader categories


form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specific rule

what are the three steps to problem solving?

preparation, production, & evaluation


identifying, separating & defining the ultimate goal


generating possible solutions called hypotheses by using algorithms & or heuristics


step by step procedure that if followed correctly will always produce the solution


simple rule or strategy for problem solving that provides shortcuts but does not guarantee a solution

what are 3 heuristics?

working backward, means-end analysis, & creating subgoals

working backward

starts with the solution and works backward through the problem. once you know the steps to be taken the problem is solved

means-end analysis

problem solver determines what measures would reduce the difference between the given state and the end goal. once you know what it take to reach the goal your problem has been solved

creating subgoals

large goal is broken down in to obtainable small goals

what are the 5 barriers to problem solving?

mental sets, functional fixedness, conformation bias, availability and representativeness heuristic

mental sets

persisting in using problem solving straggles that have worked in the past rather then bring new ones?

functional fixedness

tendency to think of an object functioning only in it usual or customary way

confirmation bias

preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence

availability heuristic

judging the likelihood or probability of an event based on how readily available other instances of the event are in memory

representativeness heuristic

estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstance matched a previous protoype

how does a person overcome a mental set?

literally "think outside the box"

expecting to buy a hamburger when you go past mcdonalds is an example of which problem solving barrier?

representativeness heuristic


ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way

what are the three elements of creativity?

originality, fluency, flexibilty


seeing unique or different solutions to a problem


generalizing a large number of possible solutions


shifting with ease one type of problem solving strategy to another

how is creativity measured?

by test divergent thinking and convergent thinking

divergent thinking

producing many alternatives or ideas from a single starting point; linked to creativity

convergent thinking

attempting to find one correct answer; linked to conventional; non-creative thinking

reordering the letters "grevenidt" to form many new words is an example of which type of thinking?

divergent thinking

2+2+6= is an example of which type of thinking?

convergent thinking

intellectual ability, knowledge, thinking style, personality, motivation and environment are all resources to what type of person?

creative people

intellectual ability

enough intelligence to see problems in a new light


sufficient basic knowledge of the problem to effectively evaluate possible solutions

thinking style

novel ideas and ability to distinguish between the worthy and the worthless


willingness to grow and change, take risks, and to overcome obstacles


sufficient motivation to accomplish the task and more internal than external motivation


an environment that support creativity

what are the 3 building blocks of language?

phonemes, morphemes, & grammer


smallest basic unit of speech or sound


smallest meaningful unit of language, formed from a combination of phonemes


system of rules (syntax & semantics) used to create language and communication

crying, cooing, & babbling are characteristics of which stage of language development?

prelinguistic stage

single-utterances, telegraphic speech & learning the rules of grammar are characteristics of which stage of language development?

linguistic stage

at what age does the prelinguistic stage happen?

birth-12 months

at what age does the linguistic stage occur?

12 months-5 years

nature perspective

language is an inborn capacity that develops primarily by maturation

nurture perspective

language develops from a complex system of rewards, punishments, & imitation


global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, & deal effectively with the environment

what are the 2 models of intelligence?

gardner & sternberg

which model of intelligence contains 3 separate, learned aspects of intelligence?


what are the 3 aspects of sternbergs model?

analytic intelligence, creative intelligence & practical intelligence

which learning model contained several forms of intelligence?


which test is most used to measure intelligence?

stanford-binet & wechsler

what does MA stand for in the iq equation?

mental age

what does CA stand for in the iq equation?

calander age

what range is considered normal iq?


what are the 3 scientific standards for measuring intelligence?

standardization, reliability & validity


establishes norms & uniform procedures for giving & scoring tests


measure of the consistency & stability of test scores over time


ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure

an iq below what number is considered mental retardation?


an iq above what number is considered gifted?


an iq of 50-70 is considered?

mild retardation (85%)

an iq of 34-49 is considered?

moderate retardation (10%)

an iq of 20-34 is considered?

severe retardation (3-4%)

an iq of below 20 is considered?

profound retardation (1-2%)

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