73 terms

psych week 5 thinking, language & intelligence

chapter 8 thinking, language & intelligence
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cognition
mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving and using knowledge
which area of the brain has the most to do with thinking?
frontal lobe
what are the three components of thinking?
mental imaging, concept, & language
mental image
mental representation of a previously stored sensory experience, including visual, auditory etc.
concepts
mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristic
What are the three way we learn concepts?
artificial concepts, natural concepts, & hierarchies
artificial concepts
formed by logical and specific rules
natural concepts
formed by everyday life experiences
hierarchies
group concepts into subcategories within broader categories
language
form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specific rule
what are the three steps to problem solving?
preparation, production, & evaluation
preparation
identifying, separating & defining the ultimate goal
production
generating possible solutions called hypotheses by using algorithms & or heuristics
algorithms
step by step procedure that if followed correctly will always produce the solution
heuristic
simple rule or strategy for problem solving that provides shortcuts but does not guarantee a solution
what are 3 heuristics?
working backward, means-end analysis, & creating subgoals
working backward
starts with the solution and works backward through the problem. once you know the steps to be taken the problem is solved
means-end analysis
problem solver determines what measures would reduce the difference between the given state and the end goal. once you know what it take to reach the goal your problem has been solved
creating subgoals
large goal is broken down in to obtainable small goals
what are the 5 barriers to problem solving?
mental sets, functional fixedness, conformation bias, availability and representativeness heuristic
mental sets
persisting in using problem solving straggles that have worked in the past rather then bring new ones?
functional fixedness
tendency to think of an object functioning only in it usual or customary way
confirmation bias
preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence
availability heuristic
judging the likelihood or probability of an event based on how readily available other instances of the event are in memory
representativeness heuristic
estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstance matched a previous protoype
how does a person overcome a mental set?
literally "think outside the box"
expecting to buy a hamburger when you go past mcdonalds is an example of which problem solving barrier?
representativeness heuristic
creativity
ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
what are the three elements of creativity?
originality, fluency, flexibilty
originality
seeing unique or different solutions to a problem
fluency
generalizing a large number of possible solutions
flexibility
shifting with ease one type of problem solving strategy to another
how is creativity measured?
by test divergent thinking and convergent thinking
divergent thinking
producing many alternatives or ideas from a single starting point; linked to creativity
convergent thinking
attempting to find one correct answer; linked to conventional; non-creative thinking
reordering the letters "grevenidt" to form many new words is an example of which type of thinking?
divergent thinking
2+2+6= is an example of which type of thinking?
convergent thinking
intellectual ability, knowledge, thinking style, personality, motivation and environment are all resources to what type of person?
creative people
intellectual ability
enough intelligence to see problems in a new light
knowledge
sufficient basic knowledge of the problem to effectively evaluate possible solutions
thinking style
novel ideas and ability to distinguish between the worthy and the worthless
personality
willingness to grow and change, take risks, and to overcome obstacles
motivation
sufficient motivation to accomplish the task and more internal than external motivation
environment
an environment that support creativity
what are the 3 building blocks of language?
phonemes, morphemes, & grammer
phoneme
smallest basic unit of speech or sound
morpheme
smallest meaningful unit of language, formed from a combination of phonemes
grammer
system of rules (syntax & semantics) used to create language and communication
crying, cooing, & babbling are characteristics of which stage of language development?
prelinguistic stage
single-utterances, telegraphic speech & learning the rules of grammar are characteristics of which stage of language development?
linguistic stage
at what age does the prelinguistic stage happen?
birth-12 months
at what age does the linguistic stage occur?
12 months-5 years
nature perspective
language is an inborn capacity that develops primarily by maturation
nurture perspective
language develops from a complex system of rewards, punishments, & imitation
intelligence
global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, & deal effectively with the environment
what are the 2 models of intelligence?
gardner & sternberg
which model of intelligence contains 3 separate, learned aspects of intelligence?
sternberg
what are the 3 aspects of sternbergs model?
analytic intelligence, creative intelligence & practical intelligence
which learning model contained several forms of intelligence?
gardner
which test is most used to measure intelligence?
stanford-binet & wechsler
what does MA stand for in the iq equation?
mental age
what does CA stand for in the iq equation?
calander age
what range is considered normal iq?
85-115
what are the 3 scientific standards for measuring intelligence?
standardization, reliability & validity
standardization
establishes norms & uniform procedures for giving & scoring tests
reliability
measure of the consistency & stability of test scores over time
validity
ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
an iq below what number is considered mental retardation?
70
an iq above what number is considered gifted?
135
an iq of 50-70 is considered?
mild retardation (85%)
an iq of 34-49 is considered?
moderate retardation (10%)
an iq of 20-34 is considered?
severe retardation (3-4%)
an iq of below 20 is considered?
profound retardation (1-2%)