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: any substance, other than food, that affects bodily functions and structures when into the body
A typical drink reaches the bloodstream in 15 minutes and rises to peak concentration in about 1 hour
It leaves the body after metabolism by the liver
Light alcohol intake is associated with lower mortality than abstinence, but mortality rates increase with the amount of alcohol consumed
It is a diuretic and lowers
7 calories per gram and stimulates the appetite
excessive alcohol consumption that can depress the nerves that control involuntary action, such as breathing and gag reflex
Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Levels
0.08% legal limit
0.20% individual may pass out
0.30% individual may go into a coma
0.40% individual may die
widely used psychoactive (mind-affecting) drug in the world. As a stimulant, relieves drowsiness helps perform in repetitive tasks, and improves the capacity for work
o Over 400 compounds and toxic substances.
o Carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, acetone, cadmium, pyridine, benzene, phenol, acrolin, vinyl chloride, hydrogen cyanide and sulfide, ammonia, and formaldehyde
o The tar contains numerous cancer-causing particles (carcinogens) that remain in the lungs
Common Cold - Cause
Spread by coughs, sneezes, and touching something just handled by a cold sufferer
Spread by Rhinoviruses causing symptoms above the neck
Stuffy nose, headache and runny nose
Adenoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses, and coronaviruses are more likely to get into the bronchi and trachea and cause more fever and bronchitis
Wash your hands, replace your toothbrush regularly, regular exercise, avoid stress
Limit Aspirin, Acetaminophen (Tylenol), and Ibuprofen
Suppresses important antibodies and increases symptoms
Watch for drowsiness
Limit pseudoephedrine due to high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, or thyroid disorders
Diabetes - Gestational
(develops during pregnancy) often linked to family history - greater risk of developing diabetes later in life
Diabetes - Type 1
Type 1: (insulin therapy is required) the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas
Diabetes --Type 2
Type 2: (90% of all diabetes cases) the pancreas does not make enough insulin (insufficient insulin) or the body does not use insulin correctly (insulin resistance)
the use of a drug for a purpose (or person) other than that for which it was medically intended.
Heart Disease - Controls
Stress and depression can increase risk of plaque build-up, which may directly trigger a heart attack in people with underlying heart disease
Drug Use Does Negatively Affect Heart Health
Heroin and Morphine
Heart Disease -Non~controls
Increased risk if parents, siblings, or other close relatives suffered heart attacks before age 50
Race and Ethnicity (African Americans)
Twice as likely to develop high blood pressure as whites
Suffer strokes at an earlier age and of greater severity.
Black women are twice as likely to suffer heart attacks and die from heart disease as white women
How the body protects itself
Unbroken skin keeps most invaders out
Tears, sweat, skin oils, saliva, and mucus have chemicals that kill bacteria
Cilia (tiny hairs) move "infected" mucus to the back of the throat to be swallowed and destroyed by the digestive system
Lymphatic system (part of the immune system) the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes (gland that store protective cells) and lymph vessels
More than a dozen white blood cells (Lymphocytes)
; high blood pressure occurring when the blood exerts excessive pressure against the arterial walls
3. Incubation period
4. Prodromal (battle) period
5. Clinical stage
6. Recovery or relapse
: the drug derived from the cannabis plant, containing the psychoactive ingredient THC, which causes a mild sense of euphoria when inhaled or eaten
a dangerous colorless, only compound, highly addictive physical and psychological stimulant
the smoke emitted by a burning cigarette and breathed by everyone in a closed room, including the smoker, contains more tar and nicotine than mainstream smoke.
: a thick, sticky dark fluid produced by the burning of tobacco, made up of several hundred different chemicals, many of them poisonous, some of the carcinogenic
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