70 terms

Urinary System

Function of the urinary system
- dispose some of the waste byproducts of the metabolic reactions in human body
- plays a major role in fluid and electrolyte balance
Name the different components of the urinary system.
1. Kidneys
2. Ureters
3. Urinary bladder
4. Urethra
Other terms for kidney
Ren, Renal, Nephro
What is Nephritis
Inflammation of the kidney
Two bean shaped organs
Where are the kidneys located?
Located behind the peritoneum on either side of the vertebral column at the level of vertebrae TXII to LIII
- On the posterior wall
Why is the right kidney is slightly lower than the left?
Due to the presence of the kidney.
The kidney has ___ surfaces, ___ borders and ____ poles
- Two (anterior and posterior surface)
- Two (medial and lateral border)
- Two (superior and inferior)
What is the anterior surface of the kidney related to?
- of right kidney related to liver and duodenum
- of left kidney related to spleen and stomach
What is the posterior surface of the kidney related to?
Of both kidneys related to diaphragm, psoas major, quadratas lumborum, transverse abdominis
Superior pole
- in touch with suprarenal (adrenal) gland
Inferior pole
- farther from the vertebral column and is round
Lateral border
Medial border
-houses the renal hilum
What are the contents of the renal hilum?
Contains renal vein/artery, renal pelvis (based on its physiology =urine), lymphatics, nerve fibers and fat
What is the renal capsule?
Fibrous capsule: is intimately attached to surface of kidney and partially extends to the interior of the renal hilum
- covers the entire kidney
Renal sinus is lined with what?
The renal capsule.
Characteristics of the renal capsule
No finger like projections, so it is really easy to peel off.
Coverings of the kidney vs adrenal gland.
They surround the kidney but the coverings of the adrenal gland are separate (individual)
Renal fascia
- Anterior / Posterior
- surrounds the kidney and the adrenal gland individually.
Paranephric fat
- Located behind the kidney and cushions it.
- Invests the kidney outside the renal fascia
Perinephric fat
Invests the kidney outside the fibrous capsule but inside renal fascia.
Main divisons in the coronal section of the kidney?
1. Cortex (outer region)
2. Medulaa (inner region)
Cortex is bounded by what?
B/w the renal capsule and renal pyramids
Renal columns
Cortex invaginates/extends b/w the renal pyramids to form them.
Renal lobe is made up of what?
Each pyramid + overlying cortex
What does the medulla consist of?
8-12 renal pyramids
Base of each pyramid faces...
The cortex
What does the apex of each pyramid point towards?
The renal hilum
What is the apex of the renal pyramid called?
Renal papilla
The apex of each pyramid opens into what structure?
A minor calyx
What forms a major calyx?
3-4 minor calyces
The Major calyces join to form what structure?
The renal pelvis
What does the renal pelvis end as?
The ureter
What are the spaces b/w the minor calyces filled with?
Renal arteries and veins
Muscular tube (25 cm), starts from renal pelvis and ends at the urinary bladder (inside true pelvis).
- retroperitoneal organs
Ureter pathway
Passes behind the peritoneum, in front of the psoas major muscle and after crossing the common illiac artery enters the pelvis. The pelvic part is crossed by the ductus deference in male and uterine artery in female.
Name the three constrictions in the ureter.
1. Junction at the renal pelvis / ureter.
2. Where the ureter passes over the common iliac artery.
3. At the entrance of the urinary bladder
Function of the ureter
Passes the urine
What is renal colic pain?
Irritation of the nerve fibres passing behind the ureter.
Urinary bladder
Hollow muscular organ in true pelvis posterior the symphysis pubis.
- in front of rectum in males and in front of uterus and vagina in females
Anatomy when urinary bladder is empty
Is pyramid w/ 3 surfaces, a base, an apex, and a neck.
Where can it go when the urinary bladder is really full?
All the way into the abdomen (leaves the true pelvis)
Name the surfaces of the urinary bladder.
1. Superior
2. Posterior
3. Inferolateral
Describe the Superior Surface
Covered by peritoneum and is related to sigmoid colon (in male), uterus in female, and the coils of the small intestine in both genders.
Inferolateral surface is related to?
Related to muscles of the pelvic wall and pelvic diaphragm (anus)
Base (fundus) of the bladder
Receives the ureters at its superolateral angles and gives rise to the urethra at its inferior angle.
- related to the anterior wall of the vagina and part of the uterus
Base of the bladder is related to?
The ductus deference, seminal vesicles and rectum in males and to the uterus in females.
Describe the apex of the bladder.
Located behind the symphysis pubis and is connected to the umbilicus by the median umbilical ligament.
Neck of the bladder
Most inferior part and is related to the prostate in male and external urethral sphincter in female
What is the rectovesical pouch?
The peritoneum covering the superior surface of the bladder reflects anterior surface of the rectum (males)
What is the uterovesical pouch?
Peritoneal layer covering the superior surface of the bladder reflects to cover the body of the uterus
- b/w bladder and uterus
What is the rectouterine pouch?
Peritoneal layer covering the superior surface of the bladder reflects to cover the body of the uterus and then reflects on the anterior surface of the rectum
- b/w the rectum and the uterus
What is the recouterine pouch also called?
Pouch of douglas
- Is the deepest pouch in the female abdominal cavity.
Where do the ureters enter the urinary bladder?
Through the funds or posterior surface of the bladder.
What is the trigone?
A smooth inverted triangular area inside the urinary bladder b/c the mucousal membrane is not thrown into folds.
Why is the trigone not folded?
B/c the mucous membrane is tightly attached to the underlying tissue and therefore not folded.
What is the urethra?
Duct or tube that connects the bladder and brings the urine to the outside.
Urethra has a dual function in males
Part of the reproductive system to drain the sperm.
Name the four parts of the male urethra.
1. Preprostatic part of urethra
2. Prostatic part of urethra
3. Membranous part of urethra
4. Spongy part of urethra
Preprostatic part of urethra
- starts from the neck of the bladder at the internal urethral orifice and ends at the prostatic urethra
- Is surrounded by the involuntary internal urethral sphincter
Function of the urethral sphincter
Contracts and closes so that sperm will not go back into the urinary bladder.
Prostatic part of urethra
- passes thru the prostrate gland and is the widest part of the urethra.
- Prostatic / ejaculatory ducts open here
What part of the urethra is the sperm drained into?
The prostatic part.
Membranous part of the urethra
- passes thru the anterior part of the pelvic floor
- surrounded / guarded by the voluntary external urethral sphincter
- narrowest and shortest part of the urethra
What enervates the external urethral sphincter?
Pedundle nerve
Spongy part of the urethra (aka penile urethra)
- longest part of the urethra that passes through the bulb and corpus spongiosum of the penis and ends at the external urethral orifice
- bulbourethral glands open to the spongy urethra
Bulbourethral gland/duct drain what into where?
Drain the secretions into the penile urethra. Changes the pH of the duct (now sperm d/n die.
Navicular fossa
The end of the penile urethra where it is expanded.
Female urethral pathway
Starts from the internal urethral orifice at the neck of the urinary bladder and ends at the external urethral orifice to the exterior below the clitoris at the vestibule