45 terms

Honors Physics - Chapter 9

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What happens to the internal energy of an ideal gas when it is heated from 0°C to 4°C?
It increases.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between two systems in thermal equilibrium?
No net energy is exchanged.
What is the temperature of a system in thermal equilibrium with another system made up of ice and water at 1 atm of pressure?
273 K
A substance registers a temperature change from 20°C to 40°C. To what incremental temperature change does this correspond?
20 K
Energy transferred as heart occurs between two bodies in thermal contact when they differ in which of the following properties?
temperature
If energy is transferred from a table to block of ice moving across the table, which of the following statements is true?
The ice is cooler than the table.
Energy transfer as heat between two objects depends on which of the following?
The difference in temperature of the two objects.
Why does sandpaper get hot when it is rubbed against rusty metal?
Friction is creating the heat.
If there is no temperature difference between a substance and its surroundings, what has occurred on the microscopic level?
Energy has been transferred from higher-energy particles to lower-energy particles.
What three properties of a substance affect the amount of energy transferred as heat to or from the substance?
mass, temperature change, specific heat capacity
Which of the following is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules?
temperature
What is the temperature of a system in thermal equilibrium with another system
made up of water and steam at 1 atm of pressure?
100°C
If two small beakers of water, one at 70°C and one at 80°C, are emptied into a large
beaker, what is the final temperature of the water?
between 70°C and 80°C
Which of the following terms describes energy that is transferred?
heat
At what point on the figure above is the amount of energy transferred as heat
approximately 4.19 × 103
J?
C
On a sunny day at the beach, the reason the sand gets hot and the water stays relatively
cool is attributed to the difference in which property between water and sand?
specific heat
Which of two rods has the greatest thermal conductivity?
a rod with electrons that are freer to move from atom to atom than another rod
The normal body temperature for human beings is 98.6°F. This corresponds to which
of the following in kelvins?
310 K
What is the temperature increase of water per kilogram at the bottom of a 145 m waterfall if all of the initial potential energy is transferred by heat to the water?
(g = 9.81 m/s^2 and c p = 4186 J/kg•°C)
0.340°C
A 0.2 kg mass of metal with a specific heat capacity of 1.26 × 103 J/kg•°C and an initial temperature of 90°C is placed in a 500 g calorimeter at an initial temperature of 20°C with a specific heat capacity of 4.19 × 102 J/kg•°C. The calorimeter is filled with 0.1 kg of water with an initial temperature of 20°C. When the combination of the metal, the calorimeter, and the water reaches equilibrium, what is the final temperature?
20°C
Find the final equilibrium temperature when 10.0 g of milk at 10.0°C is added to 1.60 × 102g of coffee with a temperature of 90.0°C. Assume the specific heats of coffee and milk are the same as for water (cw = 4.19 J/g•°C), and disregard the heat capacity of the container.
85.3°C
A 1.0 kg cube of ice is dropped into 1.0 kg of water, and when equilibrium is reached, there are 2.0 kg of ice at 0.0° C. The initial temperature of the water was 0°C. What was the original temperature of the ice? (cw = 4186 J/kg•°C, ci = 2093 J/kg•°C, and Lf = 3.3 × 105 J/kg)
-160°C
A substance's temperature increases as a direct result of
kinetic energy being added to the particles of the substance.
All of the following are widely used temperature scales EXCEPT
Joule.
High temperature is related to
high kinetic energy.
The figure above shows how the temperature of 10.0 g of ice changes as energy is added. Which of the following statements is correct?
The water absorbed energy continuously, but the temperature increased only when
all of the water was in one phase.
The use of fiberglass insulation in the outer walls of a building is intended to minimize energy transfer through what process?
conduction
Which of the following is the equivalent of 88°F?
31°C.
Which of the following is a form of kinetic energy that occurs within a molecule when the bonds are stretched or bent?
vibrational
What are the energies associated with atomic motion called?
internal energy
As the temperature of a substance increases its volume tends to increase due to
thermal expansion.
A substance registers a temperature change from 20°C to 40°C. To what incremental temperature change does this correspond?
36°F
What temperature has the same numerical value on both the Fahrenheit and the Celsius scale?
-40.0°
How is energy transferred as heat always directed?
from an object at high temperature to an object at low temperature
The use of fiberglass insulation in the outer walls of a building is intended to minimize heat transfer through what process?
conduction
To which of the following is high temperature related?
high particle kinetic energy
In the presence of friction, not all of the work done on a system appears as mechanical energy. What happens to the rest of the energy provided by work?
The remaining energy causes an increase in the internal energy of the system.
A nail is driven into a board with an initial kinetic energy of 150 J. IF the potential energy before and after the event is the same, what is the change in the internal energy of the board and nail?
150 J
A slice of bread contains about 4.19 x 10^5 J of energy. If the specific heat capacity of 4.19 x 10^3 J/kg•°C, by how many degrees Celsius would the temperature of a 70.0 kg person increase if all the energy in the bread were converted to heat?
1.43°C
Which of the following describes a substance in which the temperature and pressure remain constant while the substance experiences an inward transfer of energy?
substance undergoing a change of state
Which of the following is true during a phase change?
Temperature remains constant.
At what point on the figure above does the substance undergo a phase change?
B
The figure above shows how the temperature of 10.0g of ice changes as energy is added. Which of the following statements is correct?
The water absorbed energy continuously, but the temperature increased only when all of the water was in one phase.
Using the figure above, determine which value equals the latent heat required to change the liquid water into steam.
22.6 x 10^3 J
Which thermodynamic process takes place at constant volume so that no work is done on or by the system?
isovolumetric
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