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MCAT Acid/Base Chemistry - Gen Chem
Terms in this set (15)
Accept protons - OH-; NH3; F-
All Arrehenius bases are classified under here, but these are not limited to aqueous solutions
All Arrehenius acids are classified under here, but these are not limited to aqueous solutions
accepts of electrons
Lewis Acid comound
is like Bronsted-Lowry but the focus is on electrons instead of protons
aka coordinate covalent bond formation, complex ion formation, or nucleophile-electrophile interactions
dissociate to form an excess of H+ in solution, all these acids have H at the beginning of their formula (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, etc.)
dissociate to form an excess of OH- in solution, all these bases have OH at the end of their formula (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Fe(OH)3, etc.)
can act as an acid or base depending on the environment
partial dissociation of a polyvalent acid (HSO4-)
Hydroxides of certain metals like Al, Zn, Pb, and Cr
species that act as both oxidizing and reducing agents because they accept/donate electron pairs
if anion ends in -ate then the acid ends in -ic acid
if anion ends in -ite then the acid ends in -ous acid
HCl - hydrochloric acid
HNO3 - nitric acid
H2SO4 - sulfuric acid (HSO4- is a weak acid)
HBr - hydrobromic acid
HI - hydroiodic acid
HClO4 - perchloric acid
HClO3 - chloric acid
Strong base list
LiOH - lithium hydroxide.
NaOH - sodium hydroxide.
KOH - potassium hydroxide.
RbOH - rubidium hydroxide.
CsOH - cesium hydroxide.
*Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide.
*Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide.
*Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide.
soluble hydroxies on grp IA and IIA metals
resist changes in pH
the acid ionization constant, is the equilibrium constant for chemical reactions involving weak acids in aqueous solution. The numerical value of Ka is used to predict the extent of acid dissociation. The higher the Ka the stronger the acid. Weak aids have Ka much smaller than 1
pKa = -log10Ka; The lower the pKa value, the stronger the acid. the pH at which there are equal concentrations of acid and conjugate base
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