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90 terms

AP Psych Chapter 3

sensation and preception vocab
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Sensation
Experience of sensory stimulation
perception
process of creation meaningful patterns from raw sensory information.
receptor cell
a specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy.
absolute threshold
the least amount of energy that can be detected as a stimulation 50 percent of the time
adaption
adjustment of the senses to stimulation
Difference Threshold
The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time.
Weber's Law
The principle that the just noticeable difference for any given sense is a constant proportion of the stimulation being judged
Cornea
the transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye
Pupil
small opening in the iris through which light enters the eye.
Iris
colored part of the eye.
lens
transparent part of the eye inside the pupil that focuses light onto the retina
retina
Lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensative to light
fovea
area of the retina that is the center of the visual field.
light
the small segment of the electromagnetic spectrum to which out eyes are sensative
wavelengths
the different energies represented in the electromagnetic spectrum
rods
receptor cells in the retina repsonsible for night vision and perception of brightness- 20 million.
cones
receptor cells in the retina repsonsible for color vision- 8 million
bipolar cells
neurons that have only one axon and one dendrite; in the eye, these neurons connect the receptors on the retina to the ganglion cells.
visual acuity
the ability to distinguish fine details.
dark adaption
Incresed sensitivity of rods and cones in darkness.
light adaption
decreased sensativity of rods and cones in bright light
afterimage
sense experience that occurs after a visiual stimulus has been removed
ganglion cells
neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain
optic nerve
the bundle of acons of ganglion cells that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain
blind spot
place on the retina where the axons of the ganglion cells leave the ye and where there are no receptors
optic chiasm
point near the base of the brain where soem fibers in the optic nerve from each eye cross to teh other side of the brain
hue
the aspect of color that corresponds to names such as red, green, and blue
saturation
the vivdness or richness of a hue
brightness
the nearness of a color to white as opposed to black
additive color mixing
the process of mixing lights of different wavelengths to create new hues
subtractive color mixing
the process of mixing pigments, each of which absorbs some wavelenghts of light and reflects others
tricrhomatic theory
theory of color vision that all color perception derives from three different color receptors in the retina (usually red, green, and blue receptors).
colorblindness
partial or total inability to perceive hues
trichromats
people who have normal color vision
monochromats
people who are totally colorblind
dichromats
people who are blind to either red-green or yellow-blue
opponent-process theory
theory of color vision that three sets of color receptors (yellow-blue, red-green, black-white) respond in either/ or fashion to determine the color you expereience
sound
a psychological experience created by the brain in response to changes in aire pressure that are received by the auditory system.
sound waves
changes in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and then move apart again
frequency
the number of cycles per second in a wave; in sound, the primary determinant of pitch
hertz (Hz)
cycles per second; unit opf measurement for the frequency of waves
pitch
auditory experienec corresponding primarily to frequency of sound vibrations, resulting in a higher or lower tone.
amplitude
the magnitude of a wave; in sound, the primary determinant of loudness
decibel
unit of measurement for the loudness of sounds
overtones
tones that result from sound waves that are multiples of the basic tone; primary determinant of timbre
timbre
the quality or texture of sound caused by overtones
ammer, avil, stirrup
the three small bones in the middle ear that relay vibrations of the eardrum to the inner ear.
oval window
membrane across the opening between the middle ear and inner ear that conducts vibrations to the cochlea
round window
membrane between the middle ear and inner ear the equalizes pressure in the inner ear
cochlea
Part of the inner ear containing fluid that vibrates which in turn causes the basilar membran to vibrate.
basilar membrane
vibrating membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; it contains sense receptors for sound
organ of corti
structure on the surface of the basilar membrane that contains the receptors cells for hearing
auditory nerve
the bundle of neurons that carries signals from each ear to the brain
place theory
theory that pitch is determined by the location of greatest vibrations of the basilar membrane
frequency theory
theory that pitch is determined by the frequency with which hair cells in the cochlea fire
volley principle
Refinement of frequency theory; receptors in ear fire in sequence, one group thenanother, etc., complete patter of firing corresponds to the frequence of sound.
olfactory bulb
the smell center in the brain
pheromone
chemical that communicates information to other organisms through smell
peromone vomeronasal organ (VNO)
Location of receptors for pheromones in teh roof of the basal cavity
olfactory epithelium
nasal membranes containing receptor sensitive to odors
taste buds
structures on the tounge that contain the receptor cells for taste
papillae
small bumps pn the tongue that contain taste buds
kinesthetic senses
senses of forces and movement of muscles.
stretch receptors
receptors that sense muscle stretch and contraction.
golgi tendon oragans
receptors that sense movement of the tendons, which connect muscle to bone.
vestibular sense
senses of equilibrium and body posistion in space.
semicircular canals
structures in the inner ear particularly sensitive to body rotation.
vestibular sacs
sacs in the inner ear that are responsible for sensing gravitation and forward, backward, and vertical movement.
gate control theory
theory that a "neurological gate" in the spinal cord controls the transmission of pain messages to the brain.
placebo effect
Pain relief occurs when a person believes a pill or procedure will reduce pain; caused by endorphins
figure
object perceived to stand apart from the background.
ground
background against which the figure appears.
deature detectors
specialized brain cells that only repsond to particular elements of the visual field such as movement or lines of specific orientation.
perceptual constancy
tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changes in sensory stimulation.
size constancy
Perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed
shape constancy
tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from.
brightness constancy
perception of brightness as the same. even though the amount of light reaching the retina changes.
color constancy
inclination to perceive familiar objects as retaining their color despite changes in sensory information.
monocular cues
visual cues requiring the use of one eye.
binocular cues
visual cues requiring the use of both eyes.
superposition
monocular distance cue in which one object, partyle blocking a second object, is perceived as being closer
linear perspective
monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that two parallel lines seem to come together at the horizon
aerial perspective
moncular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that more distant objects are likely to appear hazy and blurred.
elevation
moncular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that the higher on the horizonal plane an objects is, the farther away it appears.
texture gradient
monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that objects seem at greater distances appear to be smoother and less textured
shadowing
monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that shadows often appear on the parts of objects that are more distant
motion parallax
monocular distance cue: objects closer than point of visual focus seem to move oppostie viewer's moving head, and objects beyond that focus point seem to move same direction.
stereoscopic vision
combination of two retinal images to give three-dimensional perceptual experience.
retinal disparity
binocular distance cue based on the differnece between the images cast on the two retinas when both eues are focused on teh saem object.
convergence
A visual depth cue that comes from muscles controlling eye movement as the eyes turn inward to view a nearby stimulus