Topic 6

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Celiac disease causes the destruction of the villi cells. Which of the following is most likely to happen to people with celiac disease?
Poor absorption of calcium
Is the blood in the aorta, left ventricle and pulmonary artery oxygenated or deoxygenated?
Aorta = Oxygenated
Left Ventricle = Oxygenated
Right Ventricle = Deoxygenated
Which of the following statements about antibodies is correct?
Antibodies are polypeptides
What normally prevents the membranes of the alveoli from sticking together during expiration?
The secretion of fluids in the inner surface of the alveoli
In the pancreas ___I___ secrete glucagon, which ____II____ blood glucose levels.
I = a cells
II = raises
Which are the epididymis and the seminal vesicle in the diagram?
Epididymis = III
Seminal Vesicle = I
A number of different proteins are involved in nerve function. Which of the following does not require a membrane protein?
Diffusion of the neurotransmitter across the synapse
Which organs are associated with the transformation of glucose into glycogen?
1 and 4
Between which structures do sensory neurons carry nerve impulses?
From receptors to the central nervous system
What are the genotypes of the mother and her first baby?
Mother = Rh- Rh-
First baby = Rh+ Rh-
What is a possible explanation for why subsequent pregnancies could trigger an immune response?
Exposure to the Rh+ antigen in the first pregnancy triggered the development of antibodies that could attack the blood of a future Rh+ baby
Which vessel directly supplies the heart muscle with blood?
The coronary artery
Which of the following is part of the process of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis
What will be happening in a person after eight hours of sleep?
a cells in the pancreas will be producing glucagon
Which is the sequence of events in muscle contraction?
III -> II -> IV -> I
III = Release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
II = Formation of cross bridges
IV = Actin filament moves towards the centre of the sarcomere
I = Use of ATP
What is the structure labelled Z and what is its function?
Structure Z =Cortex
Function = Ultrafiltration
During urine production, what happens if the water content of the blood is too low?
Membrane channels are produced in the cells of the collecting duct
A process occurs which inside the neuron develops a net positive charge compared with the outside. What is the name of this process?
Depolarization
Which of these statements about the human placenta is incorrect?
The mother's blood and the baby's blood mix in the placenta
Which of the following is transported by the blood?
Heat
How does the composition of the blood in the umbilical artery and the umbilical vein differ?
Blood in the umbilical artery contains less glucose than blood in the umbilical vein
What happens when ATP binds to myosin heads during muscle contraction?
Cross-bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments are broken
A blood clot forms around a fibrous network of protein. What is the protein?
Fibrin
What is difference between human sperm and human egg cells?
Sperm have larger surface area to volume ratio
Which is the following is correct for lipase?
Substrate = triglycerides
Source = Pancreas
pH optimum = pH=8
What processes occur during assimilation and absorption of lipids?
Assimilation = Lipids are incorporated into new membranes
Absorption = Lipids pass into the lacteal
What are two effects of HIV on the immune system?
Reduction in antibody production and decrease in active lymphocytes
What is the function of the structure labelled X?
Gas exchange
What are the causes of type I and type II diabetes?
Type I = Autoimmune disease leading to reduced insulin secretion
Type II = Decreased responsiveness of the body to insulin
Which of the following is/are a role of testosterone in males?
Pre-natal development of male genitalia and Maintenance of sex drive
What prevents antibiotics from being effective against viruses?
Viruses have no metabolism
Which muscles contract to cause air to pass into the lungs through the trachea?
External intercostal muscle and diaphragm
What are the roles of testosterone in males?
Pre-natal development of genitalia and development of secondary sexual characteristics
What occurs during the blood clotting process?
Prothrombin is converted into thrombin which acts on fibrinogen
What is indicated by the letters X, Y, and Z?
X = Dark band
Y = Actin filaments
Z = Myosin filaments
The diagrams below shows some stages in the production of monoclonal antibodies. What are the stages X, Y, and Z?
X = injection of antigen
Y = isolation of B-cell
Z = Fusion between B-cell and tumor cell resulting in hybridoma cell
In the diagram of the nephron below, what structures are indicated by the letters Y and Z?
Y = Bowman's capsule
Z = Distal convoluted tubule
What are the roles of the following structures in the production of semen?
Epididymis = Maturation of sperm
Seminal vesicle = Production of fructose
Prostate gland = Production of a fluid containing alkaline minerals
What is the role of HCG in early pregnancy?
It prevents the degeneration of the corpus luteum
What is a role of the pacemaker or sinoatrial node?
To originate excitation in myogenic muscle
How can active immunity be acquired?
By having the disease
What are fused in the production of monoclonal antibodies?
Tumor cells and B-cells
The diagram below shows the side view of the arm joint. Which letter is pointing to the ulna?
Z
Which of the following best describes whats happens in the glomerulus?
High blood pressure forces water and other molecules into the nephron
Which pair of statements best describes oogenesis and spermatogenesis?
Oogenesis = One egg is produced per meiosis every 28 days
Spermatogenesis = Four sperms are produced per meiosis
What does the nucleus of a human lymphocyte contain?
The whole genetic information for a human
Which chamber of the heart has the thickest walls?
Left ventricle
What causes air to be breathed out by the lungs?
The diaphragm relaxes and the ribs fall
What causes the formation of a nerve impulse on the post-synaptic membrane?
Neurotransmitter binding with receptor sites