Chapter 22: Social, Cultural, and Economic Challenges in the West through the Present
Terms in this set (21)
(b. 1932) won the run-off election for the French Presidency in 2002.
The Welfare State
A system whereby the government undertakes to protect the health and well-being of its citizens, especially those in financial or social need, by means of grants, pensions, and other benefits. Britain was the first one. The foundations for this in the US were laid by the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
(b. 1925) British Prime Minister who wanted to make British economy more efficient and competitive through privatization of industries and cutting the power of trade unions.
(b. 1953) British statesman who became prime minister in 1997. Came to accept what was at the time of Margaret Thatcher as the Thatcher Revolution.
Belief in or advocacy of women's social, political, and economic rights, especially with regard of the sexes.
Simone de Beauvoir
Wrote "The Second Sex," exploring the differences that being a woman made in her life.
(1903-1950) English writer, expressed his disappointment with Stalin's pact with Hitler in Homage to Catalonia (1938). Also the author of Animal Farm.
The post-World War II Western philosophy that holds human beings are totally responsible for their acts and that this responsibility causes them dread and anguish. Human beings are compelled to formulate their own ethical values and cannot depend on traditional religion, rational philosophy, intuition, or social customs for ethical guidance.
(1844-1900) German philosopher who argued that Christianity's emphasis on the afterlife makes its believers less ale to cope with earthly life. He announced the death of God and proclaimed the coming of the Superman, who would embody heroism and greatness. He sought a return to the heroism that he associated with Greek life in the Homeric age. He thought the values of Christianity and of Bourgeois morality prevented humankind from achieving life on a heroic level. He wrote Thus Spake Zarathustra
(1813-1855) Danish writer who maintained the Christianity could be grasped only by lives caught in extreme situations; questioned whether human beings are in control of their own destiny.
(1905-1980) French writer and philosopher. A leading existentialist, he wrote literary works, such as the autobiographical Nausea (1938) and the play No Exit (1944) and philosophical volumes that include Being and Nothingness (1943).
(1913-1960) French novelist, noted for his pessimistic portrayal of man's condition of isolation in an absurd world, author of The Plague (1947) and the Stranger (1927)
Assimilation or absorption. The spread of American influences in the economy, military, and culture to Europe. Companies such as McDonald's, Apple, Starbuck, and the Gap have outlets all over Europe. Music, movies, and television shows from the US have also come to Europe. Europeans met with some resentment to this because they didn't want to lose their culture.
A political environmentalist movement that began in West Germany in the 1970s and spread to a number of other Western nations. It is anti-capitalist and anti-nuclear.
Established as the official doctrine of Soviet art and literature in 1934, it sought to create optimistic and easily intelligible scenes of a bold socialist future, in which prosperity and solidarity would reign.
John Paul II
Youngest Pope since Pius IX and first non-Italian pope since the 16th century. He emphasized the traditionalist doctrine, firm stands against communism, and growth of the church in the non-Western world, while emphasizing social justice.
European Economic Community
(EEC) The economic association formed by France, German y, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957. Also known as the Common Market. It envisioned more than a free-trade union. They wanted to eliminate tariffs, free flow of capital labor, and similar wage and social benefits in all their countries
The new name given to the EEC in 1993. It included most states of Western Europe.
A treaty adopted in 2004 by European Union member nations; it was a long, detailed, and highly complicated document involving a bill of rights and complex economic and political agreements among all the member states.
1993 Treaty of Maastricht turns the EEC into this with a common currency for 12 of the member nations: the Euro. In 2004, membership in the union rises to 25 countries. Many former Soviet bloc countries need economic aid from the Union.
The movement originated in architecture and removed from an object as many features as possible while retaining the object's form. Function over form.
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