Terms in this set (54)
behaviors targeting an entire social group.
evaluative/judgemental attitudes about an entire social group.
beliefs/opinions about the characteristics , attributes and behaviors of members of various groups.
thinking that there is a characteristic that an entity must possess - this is a way of stereotyping
tendency to underestimate differences in members of outgroups. Example: "they all look the same"
realistic conflict theory
When groups compete for scarce resources.
antipathy towards others who have played no role in a group's perceived real or relative deprivation. A person or group is thwarted from a particular goal.
social identity theory
all people prefer to see themselves positively. Part of self image is defined by our group memberships.
visible/invisible hate. Someone who is intolerant and open about their hate towards a specific group.
sexism, racism, heterosexism, etc.
the feeling from having inconsistent thoughts/beliefs/attitudes and behaviors (ex: believing smoking is harmful but still smoking)
cognitive miser model of cognition
the general idea that individuals frequently rely on simple and time efficient strategies when evaluating information and making decisions.
fundamental attribution errors
interferences/explanations made about another's actions/behaviors by seeking something intrinsic about the person.
ultimate attribution errors
In group gets enhancing attributions and out group gets diminishing attributions.
bogus pipeline method
a technique used by social psychologists to reduce false answers when attempting to collect self-report data. For example, social desirability is a common reason for warped survey results.
psychodynamic explanations of prejudice
Character-conditioned prejudice "world-mindedness", tolerant/intolerant-personality...
right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)
constellation of attitudes-authoritarian submission, aggression and conventionalism.
-politically conservative: orthodox religious views. More punitive
toward animals and wish to restrict personal freedoms.
process of questioning, doubting, and reexamination of life issues. Generally higher in prosocial behaviors. Have compassion for others.
internalize values of their religion. Live life according to religious values and attend church regularly.
use religion for self aggrandizement. Attend church infrequently and tend to have higher prejudice toward others.
tend to need an answer, any answer to a given topic, so that they may arrive at a conclusion.
Need for structure
motivation for desiring clear, certain, or unambiguous knowledge about a topic.
Need for cognition
motivation to think about the world. Enjoy thinking, seeking and pondering problems/information about world.
social dominance orientation (SDO)
preference to inequality among social groups.
Old fashioned racism
believe in innate superiority of white race, low acceptance of equality, accept traditional racist beliefs, and strong negative emotions, tries to exclude or dominate and control minority groups
Negative stereotypes still exist and are absorbed in the negative emotions associated w/ those stereotypes, individuals not aware of having them, affect people's emotional responses to and behavior towards minority groups, learned through socialization.
form of contemporary racism, set of beliefs about Black people as an abstract group that portrays Black people as morally inferior to Whites. Results in action: voting against black candidates opposing affirmative action programs, opposing desegregation.
form of contemporary racism, sense of ambivalence towards Blacks, belief that discrimination is a thing of the past, Blacks are too pushy and try to get in where they don't belong, believe Black demands and gains are unfair, subtle form of prejudice.
like Modern-Symbolic, believe in equality but maintain implicit negative beliefs about blacks, avoid interracial contact due to anxiety in presence of Blacks, tend to emphasize pro-White rather than anti-black bias
conflict between egalitarian and traditional beliefs, and between positive and negative stereotypes, both positive and negative discomfort when aware of ambivalent responses
expressed in terms of positive beliefs and emotional responses to targets of prejudice, while superficially positive it still keeps target of prejudice in subordinate positions in society
refers to traditional form of prejudice, expressed in terms of negative beliefs about and emotional responses to targets of prejudice
form of hostile prejudice, outgroup is perceived as competent and not warm, outgroup is a threat to political and economic power of ingroup, have perceptions of threat if members of outgroup succeed
form of hostile prejudice, outgroup perceived as neither competent nor warm, outgroup seen as eminently dislikeable
race as a biological/social construct
race is a "folk idea", a culturally invented conception about human differences
ADL's "hate pyramid"
1. Prejudiced Attitudes. 2. Acts of Prejudice 3. Discrimination 4.Violence 5. Genocide
the IAT (Implicit Association Test)
flexible task designed to tap automatic associations between concepts (math and arts) and attributes (good and bad, male or female, self or other, black or white)
a social science research term that describes the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. It can take the form of over-reporting "good behavior" or under-reporting "bad", or undesirable behavior.
National family violence survey and national violence against women survey
Definition of violence
Violence is the expression of physical or verbal force against self or other, compelling action against one's will on pain of being hurt. Extreme force; Action intended to cause destruction, pain, or suffering; Widespread fighting; Injustice, wrong
Hostile ("hot") aggression is reactive and impulsive. Aggression is driven by feelings (e.g., anger), often in the absence of a rational cost-benefit analysis.
Instrumental ("cold") aggression is rational and calculated. Aggression is used by the individual in order to maximize personal gains.
domestic violence, also known as family violence, is hostile aggression between people who are intimately involved with each other.
may be random, may also be violence in gang rivalries.
(Uniform Crime Report)
(National Crime Victimization Survey)
Government survey of victim data
National Family Violence Survey
National Violence Against Women Survey
describes violent individuals who are violent both in the home (with family members) and outside the home (violent in the streets.)
definition of evil
evil is in the eye of the beholder. Intentional interpersonal harm → causes of violence
the "myth of pure evil" (8 misconceptions)
Characterized by intentional inflicting of harm
They inflict harm merely for pleasure of doing so
Victim is always both good and innocent
Evil resides in the other/enemy
The dispositional character of evil perpetrators
Evildoers are egotistical
Evil is the opposite of order and peace
Evildoers have difficulty maintaining emotional control
the four roots of evil
1. Instrumental: evil as a means to an end. 2. Egoistic: evil as payback. 3. Fanatical: evil in service of idealism. 4. The joy of hurting: evil as source of pleasure.
the role of mutual aggression in evil
Cases of mutual aggression are described by the participants as if the other side were unreasonably, gratuitously violent whereas they themselves were merely innocent, well-intentioned victims who were ultimately forced to defend themselves.
self esteem and violence
threats to self‐esteem
often at root of violent revenge
Fluctuating (unstable) self‐
• Case study: Elliot Rodger
who to blame for aggression