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107 terms

Philosophy A

STUDY
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A cognitive relativist would argue that (Points: 1)
there are no universally true knowledge claims
According to Socrates, to find universal principles that explain our experiences, one must look for (Points: 1)
formal explanations
Accounts of the origin of the universe found in the Bible, Hindu scriptures, and other religious text (like the writings of Hesiod) are examples of (Points: 1)
mythic explanation
Adequacy is the criterion for good philosophy that states (Points: 1)
a theory should be able to incorporate new data or experiences
Applicability is the criterion for good philosophy that states (Points: 1)
a theory should refer to conscious human experience
Aristotle argues that "language mirrors the world/reality" because (Points: 1)
b) and c)
Aristotle recognized that if 'something' existed then (Points: 1)
it could not exist independent of a principle which defined it
Aristotle's belief that 'reality is prior to language' does NOT mean (Points: 1)
all of the above
A scientist has developed a scientific theory which does not allow for the inclusion of new information or data; the theory is such that it cannot account for this new information or data. Which criterion of good thinking/philosophy has been violated? (Points: 1)
adequacy
Aristotle stated that philosophical inquiry begins with (Points: 1)
wonder
A constructivist would argue: (Points: 1)
all claims about rationality are culturally biased
According to the Socratic tradition, Protagoras is associated with (Points: 1)
relativism
A good philosophical theory does NOT need to (Points: 1)
make sense to everybody
Aristotle said that philosophy begins in wonder. By this he meant ____ (Points: 1)
both b and c
Anti-foundationalists often criticize foundationalism because ____. (Points: 1)
foundationalists have failed to agree about what exactly constitute transcultural foundational principles
According to Russell, the value of philosophy is to be found in ____. (Points: 1)
its indirect effects on the lives of those who study philosophy
According to Russell, one of the values of philosophical contemplation is ____. (Points: 1)
keep alive speculative interest
According to Russell, the mind that is expanded by contemplation has the following characteristics: (Points: 1)
impartiality, justice, universal love
According to Russell, philosophical contemplation ____. (Points: 1)
starts with the Not-Self and enlarges the boundaries of the Self
According to Phillips, (Points: 1)
people from all walks of life can Socratize
A source is called a "secondary source" if it: (Points: 1)
focuses on explaining the ideas of others
A difference (or similarity) between philosophy and the observational sciences is (Points: 1)
both begin phenomenologically
According to Peirce, the immediate motive for our move from a state of doubt to a state of belief is (Points: 1)
the irritation of doubt
An a posteriori statement is one which (Points: 1)
the meaning is dependent upon sense data collection
An a priori statement is one which (Points: 1)
the meaning is independent of sense data collection
Axiomatic truths are (Points: 1)
always accepted on 'faith'
According to Peirce what does doubt cause us to experience? (Points: 1)
irritation
According to Peirce belief is like a (Points: 1)
habit
According to Peirce, the method of authority (Points: 1)
those with power and prestige fix belief
According to Peirce, the best method of fixing belief is that of (Points: 1)
scientific/ a posteriori - dependent on something
According to Peirce we know a belief is true if (Points: 1)
carries us to the point at which we aim
According to Peirce what does doubt cause us to experience? (Points: 1)
irritation
A disposition (Points: 1)
all of the above
All speech acts (Points: 1)
all of the above
A belief which is 'beyond reasonable doubt for a given subject would be one which? (B = believing; p, q,.. = a particular speech act; ~ = not; * = and; > = more reasonable than; > = at least as reasonable as). (Points: 1)
Bp > Wp
A belief which is 'obvious for a given subject would be one which? (B = believing; p, q,.. = a particular speech act; ~ = not; * = and; > = more reasonable than; > = at least as reasonable (Points: 1)
Bp > Wq
A belief which is 'probable for a given subject would be one which? (B = believing; p, q,.. = a particular speech act; ~ = not; * = and; > = more reasonable than; > = at least as reasonable as). (Points: 1)
Bp > B~p
A belief which is not obvious for a given subject, could NOT be which of the following? (Points: 1)
certain
A position which argues that one should not accept any statement or belief unless one has good justification to support its truth is called____________. (Points: 1)
verificationism
A self-presenting state claim (for the conscious subject making the claim) has which of the following as its maximum epistemic justification level? (Points: 1)
certain
According to Descartes' Meditation II, we can be certain ____. (Points: 1)
that we exist as a thinking thing when we are thinking
According to Clifford, people have a right to believe if ____. (Points: 1)
their belief is based on sufficient evidence
According to Clifford, ____. (Points: 1)
carefully gathering and judging evidence is a moral as well as an epistemic duty
According to James, in which of the following situations is the decision not to believe as much a decision based on passion as the decision to believe ? (Points: 1)
genuine options that cannot be decided by the evidence
According to James, the religious hypothesis differs from the moral and the scientific in that ____. (Points: 1)
science tells us what things are, religions tells us the best things are eternal and we are better off now believing that to be true, and morality tells us some things are better than others
According to the reading(s), what is the basic problem of knowledge? (Points: 1)
distinguishing knowledge from opinion
According to Nyaya by what standard are mistaken knowledge claims ultimately detected? (Points: 1)
successfulness in practice
A ____is defined as that which appears to be a valid reason for inference but really is not. (Points: 1)
fallacy
According to Narayan, feminist epistemology fundamentally (Points: 1)
challenges the male bias of existing perspectives
A fundamental challenge unique to nonwestern feminists is (Points: 1)
criticizing the sexists aspects of their culture while upholding its traditional values
A statement which is necessarily true and which says "something new" (according to Kant) is (Points: 1)
a priori synthetic
A statement which is necessarily true and which is 'before' or independent of sense experience is (Points: 1)
a priori
A statement which is contingently (not necessarily) true and which is derived from (or after) sense experience is (Points: 1)
a posteriori
A statement in which the meaning of the predicate term is not found in the meaning of the subject term is (Points: 1)
synthetic
A statement in which the meaning of the predicate term is found in the meaning of the subject term is (Points: 1)
a priori
A chief aim of the philosophy of science is: (Points: 1)
critical analysis of the various sciences
According to Popper, scientific progress: (Points: 1)
occurs when theories are corroborated through scientific evidence
According to Popper, it is a mistake to think that falsificationists: (Points: 1)
care only about criticism and not about truth
According to Popper, science is interested in truth that is: (Points: 1)
interesting and relevant to difficult problems
Anomalies are important in science because ____. (Points: 1)
discovery commences with the appearance of anomaly against the background of a paradigm
According to Kuhn, scientific revolutions are ____. (Points: 1)
non-cumulative developmental episodes in which one paradigm is replaced by an incommensurable new one
According to Harding standpoint theory ____ empiricist epistemologies. (Points: 1)
can be contrasted with
According to Harding, standpoint theory seeks to establish (Points: 1)
none of the above
According to Horton, traditional religious beliefs differ from natural science in the following way:
in traditional cultures nature is the focus of reduction to the familiar
According to Appiah, the adversarial style ____. (Points: 1)
uses rival theories as the main stimulus for a change of belief
Appiah argues that the primary reason why traditional cultures are not adversarial is ____.
they are oral, rather than literate cultures
Appiah disagrees with Durkheim's point about symbolic truth because ____. (Points: 1)
he argues that his definition of rationality applies to nonscientific cultures, without the need for a concept of symbolic truth
A "discursive formation" (Points: 1)
is independent of the beliefs of individuals
A(n) ____ of knowledge explains the changes in systems of discourse.
genealogy
According to Foucault which is the most powerful yet least noticed principle of exclusion?
truth and falsity
According to Foucault the essential problem for the intellectual is (Points: 1)
changing the politics and economics of the regime of truth
A difficulty with the first interpretation of Anselm's argument can arise when (Points: 1)
one rejects that "perfection" indicates a being or thing
A difficulty with the first interpretation of Aquinas's second argument can arise when (Points: 1)
one rejects that a first cause in a series of causes is necessary
A difficulty with the first interpretation of Augustine's argument can arise when (Points: 1)
one rejects that expressions like "2+2=4" are eternal
Augustine's proof for the existence of god demonstrates the necessity of (Points: 1)
thinking
A ritual is (Points: 1)
a repetitive behavior
As a religion transforms from tribal to metaphysical (philosophical/theological), this transformation is done by (Points: 1)
a few of the practitioners of the religion
According to Aquinas, if a being is contingent, then: (Points: 1)
there was a time that it did not exist
Aquinas argues that things achieve their ends designedly rather than fortuitously because:
he sees that things act in such a way that these ends are repeatedly and regularly achieved.
According to St. Thomas, a series of efficient causes cannot stretch to infinity because ____.
there exists a regular order of efficient causes
According to St. Thomas, it is impossible for all things that exist to be capable of not existing because ____. (Points: 1)
something cannot come from sheer nothing
According to Craig, the cosmological argument: (Points: 1)existence
does not explain why the first cause must be God
According to Dharmasiri, Buddhism views attempts to demonstrate that God created the universe as: (Points: 1)
attempts to show that there is something in the cosmos beyond the observable
According to Dharmasiri's understanding of Buddhism, what is one reason that explaining the existence of the universe through reference to divine reality can be considered faulty? (Points: 1)
the arbitrariness of choosing divine reality as a final explanation
According the Dharmasiri, Buddhism views all explanations as: (Points: 1)
based on fundamental truths which must simply be accepted
According to Dharmasiri, the Buddhist believes that: (Points: 1)
the universe can be explained on its own terms
A position which argues that 'god' is an ambiguous and vague term, and is thereby vacuous in meaning and should be discarded is (Points: 1)
atheism
A position which claims that god necessarily exists but that no predicates are appropriate for the expression "god is [a predicate]" is (Points: 1)
a-theism
A position which claims that god necessarily exists and that any and all predicates are appropriate for the expression "god is [a predicate]" is (Points: 1)
pantheism
A position which claims that god necessarily exists and that the predicate "one" is appropriate for the expression "god is [a predicate]" is (Points: 1)
monotheism
A position which claims that god necessarily exists and that the predicate "creator" is appropriate for the expression "god is [a predicate]", but that the predicates "sustainer, savior or provider" are not appropriate is (Points: 1)
deism
A general position which claims that god necessarily exists and that at least some, if not all, predicates are appropriate for the expression "god is [a predicate]" is (Points: 1)
theism
A necessary being is (Points: 1)
one which had to be (existed in past), has to be (exists in the present), and will have to be (exist in the future).
A contingent being is (Points: 1)
one which had to be (existed in past), has to be (exists in the present), and will have to be (exist in the future).
According to Dawkins, cumulative selection ____.
filters repeatedly, passing on some of the first results to the next filtering process
According to Dawkins, the theory that the universe was divinely created is problematic because it:
assumes what it is trying to explain
According to Dawkins, the fact that his daughter could not create the sentence, "Methinks it is like a weasel," suggests: (Points: 1)
single-step selection is an unlikely explanation of organized complexity
According to the reading, claiming that the burnt baby will go to heaven (Points: 1)
cannot provide God with an excuse for not helping the baby
According to the "free will" response to the problem of evil (Points: 1)
evil is the result of human choices
According to the author of our text which of the following is not true? (Points: 1)
atheists must demand a world without suffering
According to the author of our text (Points: 1)
all of the above
According to Daly, the symbol of God the Father has ____. (Points: 1)
mystified social roles resulting in the domination of husbands over wives
According to Daly, what are the differences between the masculine and the feminine stereotypes?
masculinity is associated with hyperrationality
According to Daly, an androgynous person would ____. (Points: 1)
transcend sex stereotypes
According to the Dalai Lama (Points: 1)
religion tends to be a very effective way for people to acquire love and compassion for humanity
According to the Dalai Lama religious conflict often arises from (Points: 1)
all of the above
According to the Dalai what is the defining feature of a religious act? (Points: 1)
any deed done with good motivation