Upgrade to remove ads
Voice Test 2
Terms in this set (83)
What are the unpaired cartilages of the larynx?
Epiglottis, Thyroid Cartilage, Cricoid Cartilage
Describe the Epiglottis
Leaf like cartilage who's stem attaches to the INNER ASPECT of the Angle of the Thyroid
-The epiglottis covers the trachea during swallowing
Describe the Thyroid Cartilage
-Composed of two large plates called lamina and are fused in the front at a place called the Lamina of the Thyroid.
-Superior is a notch called the thyroid notch
-Projecting inferiority are two notches called the Inferior Cornu (there is an oval impression on the inside of each inferior cornu. This fits with the protuberance of the cricoid (like a snap)
-Projecting superiorly are the superior cornui
Describe the Cricoid Cartilage
-Composed of an anterior arch and a quadrate plate (lamina)
-On either side of the poster-lateral aspect of the arch bilaterally there are two (one on each side) round bump or protuberance which fits into Cricothyroid joint
What are the paired cartilages of the larynx?
Describe the arytenoid cartilages
-Are paired and tetrahedral in shapy with three visible sides and a base.
-The Arytenoid cartilages sit atop the superior boarder of the posterior quadrate lamina of the cricoid
Describe the four angles of the Arytenoid Cartilages
-The Anterior Angle is called the Vocal Process
-The posterior lateral side is called the Muscular Process
-The superior angle is the Apex Angle
-The base is one side and is concave and on the superior boarder of the posterior quadrate lamina, there are Convex Bumps (protuberances that receive the concave bases of the arytenoids)
-The anterior-lateral surface presents two pits/depressions
What is the Triangular Fovia of the Arytenoid cartilages?
Triangular depression on the lateral surface that receives the ventricular ligament (medial margin of the ventricular folds (false vocal folds)
Near the base of the anterior lateral surface of the Arytenoids is a long pit called what?
The Elongated pit which receives the two main muscles of the VF
Describe the aery epiglottic folds
Folds of tissue that run form the apex of the arytenoids to the lateral aspects of the epiglottis (like reins of a horse)
Two wedge like cartilages are called the _____ _____ and are vestigial cartilages and don't do anything
What are the two main joints that assist with pitch changing?
Describe the Crico-Thyroid joint
There are two bumps on the cricoid (posterior lateral part of the arch) that snap into the inner aspect of each inferior cornu of the thyroid
-The receiver is OVAL not round. So when the two joints move, they rotate around each other.
-Because the depression is oval not round, the snap can go straight forward and straight back.
-When the crick-thyroid muscle contracts, it can shift the thyroid forward and rotate it down.
What happens when the crico-thyroid muscle contracts with regards to the oval snap?
It can shift the thyroid forward and rotate it down.
-Because the muscle is elastic, it Tenses and Thins the the muscle and makes it vibrate faster and the pitch goes up
What is the result of manipulating the crico-thyroid joint?
Describe the Crico-Arytenoid joint
-Governs Adduction and Abduction of the folds. On the base (superior surface of the posterior quadrate lamina) of the cricoid posteriorly, there are two barrel bumps.
The base of the arytenoids are concave so the base of the arytenoids can rotate forward and backward as well as sliding medially and laterally.
-Where ever the arytenoids move, the VF go. If the arytenoids are shifting forward on the convex barrel, the vocal process (point) of the arytenoid will shift forward and downward and come together.
-If the arytenoids move posteriorly, they will rotate backward, upward, and apart. If exerted a medial pull, they would come together, and a lateral pull will pull them apart.
What is an intrinsic muscle mean?
It begins and ends within the larynx.
Describe the intrinsic Thyroarytenoid muscle
-Thyromuscularis (more thin)
Thyrovocalis (main vibrating mass)
What is the medial margin of the vocal fold called?
The vocal ligament which is the VF, and lateral to this is the thyrovocalis and lateral to that is the thyro muscularis
Describe the thyromuscuaris
Originates at the inner aspect at the angle of the thyroid. Runs posteraly to insert at the muscular process of the arytenoid and posterior 1/2 of the elongated pit
Describe the thyrovocalis
Originates at the inner aspect at the angle of the thyroid. Runs posteriorly to attach to the vocal process of the thyroid and the anterior 1/2 of the elongated pit
Describe the vocal ligament
From the inner aspect of the angle of the thyroid to the vocal process of the arytenoid
What is the glottal tensor?
The cricothyroid muscle. It lengthens, tenses and thins the VF by shifting the thyroid cartilage forward and down (or cricoid backward and down)
-Paired muscle each of which has two bundles
Describe the two bundles of the cricothyroid muscle?
-Pars Recta (recta means erect or up and down) It originates on the anterior-lateral arch cricoid and runs straight up to insert on the inner aspect of the thyroid lamina. Exerts a downward pull on thyroid or an upward pull on cricoid
-Pars Oblique (on the diagonal) Originates on the anterior-lateral arch of the cricoid. Runs upward and backward to attach to the inferior cornu of the thyroid. Exerts a backward pull
-Both increase the vocal process of the arytenoid and the vocal process of the thyroid to thin and tense
What are the two muscles of Adduction?
-Lateral Crico Arytenoid
-Inter Arytenoid (includes two bundles)
Describe the lateral cricoarytenoid
-Originates on the arch of the cricoid and runs posteriorly to the muscular process (poster-lateral angle) of the arytenoid
-When it contracts, it exerts a Forward pull on the arytenoids that rotates the vocal process Downward, Forward, and Together
Describe the interarytenoid muscles
-Transverse (more deep) runs from the posterio-lateral angle of the arytenoid from base to apex, and runs straight across horizontally tot he posterio lateral base to apex of the other arytenoid. If this muscle contracts, it slides the arytenoids medially on the barrels
-Obliqus (more superficial) Runs from the posterior aspect of the muscular process of tone arytenoid diagonally to the posterior aspect of the apex to the other arytenoid and vise versa
What are the muscles of Abduction?
-Posterior crico arytenoid
-PCA and LCA
Describe the posterior cricoarytenoid
Originates by broad attachment of the posterior lamina of the cricoid. Runs upward and laterally to attach to the posterior aspect of the muscular process of the arytenoid.
-It exerts a posterior influence on the arytenoid making them rotate Backward, Upward, and Appart
Describe the combined effects of the PCA and LCA
help the lateral movement of the arytenoid. The two forces will result in a vector of the angle making it slide laterally
How is the hyoid bone suspended?
It is suspended int he anterior neck muscles above and below is not connected to another bone. The larynx is suspended from the hyoid bone.
Describe the horns of the hyoid bone
There are two horns called minor horns and two that project posteriorly called major bones...?
The vocal tensor is important for ________ and ________ the vocal folds for a higher pitched voice
thinning and tensing
The lateral cricoarytenoid had what type of pull on the arytenoids?
It causes the vocal process to be pulled Forward, Down ward and Together
The larynx is bi-laterally innervated by the ____ nerve and has several branches. What are the branches?
Vagus nerve and has the Superior laryngeal nerve and the Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Describe the superior laryngeal nerve
Motor to the cricothyroid muscle and sensory to the upper larynx (or lower pharynx). This is important to sense anything near the airway to trigger the cough reflux. People with neuro-motor deficits loose this ability and can cause aspiration.
Describe the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
It is Motor to the muscles of Adduction and Abduction for the VFs. It is sensory to the lower larynx. It helps propel clem to clear the lungs and throat to cough it out.
Which side of the Vagus nerve is longer?
The nerve is 10cm longer on the left than the right because it loops down then re-occur at the larynx. The one on the left loops under the aortic arch.
What is the prevalent theory of phonation called?
The Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation. Phonation is a laryngeal pulmonary pairing.
What does the myoelastic aerodynamic theory of phonation state?
1) The vocal folds after inhalation and just before voice the VFs are adducted by the muscles and this creates a closed valve against which you are applying exhalatory force (force exerted against infinite resistance). The more you try to exhale against the resistance, the more the pressure will build against resistance (subglottic pressure).
-The fore overcomes the resistance of the folds and blows the folds open/apart at which time a blast/puff of air escapes striking the air column. This sets it into complex vibration and has more than one frequency of vibration.
What is the puff of subglottic air striking the air column called?
The Supra-glottic air column. As air is released, the VFs return to their adducted position
Describe the process of the VFs closing after releasing an air column.
They return because of a momentary reduction in subglottic pressure. BERNULI phenomenon which is an aerodynamic effect that causes the folds to be sucked back together as the air rushes between them. It creates a negative pressure in the constriction drawing them together.
-The elasticity of the fods also brings them together. This is the force an object exerts to restore itself when displaced from rest.
How long does it take for the VF to close?
1/100s and the process repeats again as long as phonation continues. EX) the F0 is 125, then you are releasing 125 puffs every second
What is the Cover-Body theory of phonation?
Describes the VFs as a multi-layer vibratory mass. The structure of the VF and the effects on the puff air.
What is pitch?
Pitch is a psychological perception but is correlated with the physical concept of fundamental vocal frequency. It is a judgement call. As the frequency goes up, your judgement of pitch goes up but it is NOT a 1:1 ratio. There are 3 laws that govern frequency of vibrating objects.
What are the three laws that govern Pitch of the VFs?
What is the Length law
Longer the vibrating object, the lower its frequency. On average a male's VFs vibrate at a lower frequency than females and are perceived to have a lower voice(think of grandfather clocks)
What is the Tension Law?
The more tense the vibrating object, the higher the frequency. If you increase the tension, then you increase the pitch
What is the Mass law?
The greater the mass, the Lower the frequency (VFs that are thick, if cut they will be thickener int he cross sectional area) (fatter things move slower)
Using the three laws of pitch, explain how contraction of the cricothyroid changes pitch
When the cricothyroid contracts, it lengthens the vocal folds and pitch goes up. This increases the length thus increasing the tension and decreasing the mass. The tension and mass law rather out rule the length law. By lengthening the Fs, you increase the tension and Decrease the Mass
There is a __ : __ relationship between the rate (puffs per second) of the puffs and the fundamental frequency of the voice
1:1 relationships (125 puffs per second equals 125 hz.)
What is Loudness governed by?
The FORCE of the puff striking the spraglottic air column. Loudness is the psychological perception of intensity (sound pressure level). The harder you strike a vibrating object the greater its displacement (amplitude) it will be. The VFs create a pressure wave.
By regulating subglottic pressure, what else can we regulate?
We regulate the puff. The greater the subglottic pressure, the greater the force on the puff.
How do we regulate subglottic pressure?
1) Exhale harder (greater exhalatory voce), by contracting the muscles of expiration and yank the rib cage down harder. We can do this consciously
2) Can increase subglottic pressure by keeping the VFs closed longer giving the pressure more time to build up
There are two fibro-membranous linings of the ligaments. What are these two?
1) Lines the larynx from above and ends in the ventricular ligament called the Quadrangular Membrane
2) The second lines the larynx from below called the Cornus Elasticus
-All of the larynx is lined with mucous membrane
What is the order of layers on the VFs?
-Epithelial layer (mucous membrane
-Lamina Propria Superficial (Reinke's Space)
-Lamina Propria Intermediate
-Lamina Propria Deep(vocal ligament)
-Body (larger cells)
-Elastic Conus ends in the vocal ligament. It's fibro membranes lining below the body
The VFs are covered in what?
An Epithelial layer and the lamina propria superficial
What is below the epithelial layer?
The lamina propria superficial. It is made of loose, gelatinous material. Sometimes called Reinke's Space
What characterizes normal phonation?
The outer layer of the VFs is loose and floppy causing a mucosal wave. This is normal phonation. In vocal abuse, when the VF gets Edematus (swollen), this lamina propria superficial gets swollen and ridged and this wave is lost.
What is it called when the VF gets Edmatus (swollen) and the the mucosal wave is lost?
Reinke's Edema. It is neurological and doesn't allow for a good seal of the VFs.
The Body is the what?
The larger cells deep to the LPd. T
Where does the elastic conus end?
In the vocal ligament. Its the fibro membraneous lining below the body
Puff rate determines the what of a wave?
The fundamental frequency of a wave (direct transition to how many cycles in the acoustic wave)
Puff force determines what of a wave?
The amplitude...the ear hears this as loudness
Puf regularity leads to what?
Jitter and shimmer
What is jitter and shimmer?
Jitter = the variations in periods (frequency)
Shimmer = Variations in amplitude(variation in successive puff force produces variation in successive cyclic amplitudes)
Both only moderately correlated with perception of roughness and isn't high enough to be very clinically predictive to what the ear will judge as spect
Spectral noise and _______ are highly correlated
What does a spectral analyzer take?
Takes the acoustic wave with the jitter and shimmer and analyzes it into its component frequency and into the relatively frequency of each part. It is more fine parsing of the wave
What does the Acoustic Spectrum do?
Looks at each component of each frequency (fundamental frequency, harmonic frequency at whole number multiples of the fundamental) 250, 00, 750, 1000, 1250
What are aperiodic/inter harmonic frequencies?
They show up between the harmonics of a wave. This can also be called Spectral noise. This is random not predictable.
The average decibel (intensity) level of these inter harmonic frequencies was called ____ ____
why do we study speech?
Studying the acoustic output of speech can yield inferences regarding the originating psychologic mechanisms that are themselves not accessible to direct observation
-The acoustic output provides the stimulus of the stimulus-perceptual response chain we seek to understand
-The human acoustic output signal that is a key element in man machine communication
The sound wave is a direct product of what?
The vibration of the supraglottic air column
The perceived roughness of the voice is determined by what?
The regularity or irregularity with which the puts strike the column. The synchronicity of the VF vibration determines the regularity of puff emission.
What determines the usefulness of a particular objective measure?
The extent to which an objective acoustic feature is related to the listeners' perception determines the lineal usefulness
What is a nominal scale?
Nominal scales involve naming. Norminal scales attach labels or names to voice qualities (hoarse, harsh, breathy, strident, thin, weak, raspy etc)
-This is the most commonly used scale for ating voice qualities, yet, it is the least reliable
What are the most commonly used terms for the perceptual diagnosis of voice quality disorders?
Normal, harsh, hoarse, and breathy
What is semantic differential scale?
(like a scale used to rate something). It involves a statement or a descriptor and then asks the judge to specify the degree to which he or she agrees or disagrees.
Describe an interval scale
The most commonly used scal is an equal appearing intervals scale. Typically five, seven or nine point scales are used where the end points of the scale represent least and most severe
On an interval scale, what are the two factors for determining how many choices to give?
-Homogeneity of the entire sample being judged (more same samples would require a shorter scale due to the small differences among the samples
-Inherent change agreement associated wight he scale
What is the term for when the intensity level of inter harmonic energy (spectral noise) increases and there is a corresponding decrease in the intensity levels of the harmonics?
A trading relationship
What is the noise to harmonic ratio?
Noise/harmonic ratio says normal voices should have small numbers way less than one, but a horse voice should have a larger numerator and small denominator which will yield a large number
Spectral noise level is directly related to what?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Speech Science test 1 (grad school)
Consonant Phonetic Chart via Notecards!
Boutsen's test 1 Motor Disorders
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
201 Quiz 3
Anatomy Chapter 8
spa 3011 test 3
Chapter 8- Appendicular Skeleton
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Voice Test 2 pt 2
Cleft Palate Exam Questions
SLP Voice Test 1
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Child Development Chapter 9
Anth 201 Quiz 2
Chem. of the Env. Exam #2
Psychology 111 EXAM 2