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a file which contains one or more spreadsheets.


an arrangement of cells in columns and rows used to organize, analyze, calculate, and report information, usually in numerical form.


individual locations on a spreadsheet.

Cell address

refers to one specific location, such as A4.

Cell range

refers to a group of adjacent cells, such as A4:A16.


refers to all of the contents in a vertical range of cells of the spreadsheet.


refers to all of the contents in a horizontal range of cells.

Cell data

classified according to its intended purpose.


used for cells that contain text or for numbers that will not be used in calculations.


indicates that the data has the potential to be used in calculations.


instructs the software to perform a calculation.

Order of Operations

Calculations are performed according to this

Basic function

a shortcut for a formula.

Cell reference

indicates a cell's location and provides instructions for how cell data is copied or used in calculations.

Relative Cell Reference

cell value changes as the formula is copied

Absolute Cell Reference

cell value remains static when copied to other locations

Mixed Cell Reference

combination of an absolute and a relative cell


control the Order of Operations


adds the range of cells


determines the average of the range of cells


finds the highest number in the range of cells


finds the lowest number in the range of cells

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