American Government: Roots and Reform - Chapter Nine
a set of complex hierarchical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duties. (Answer) may be private organizations or governmental units.
the firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party in order to replace them with loyalists of the newly elected party
jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support
reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal services by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination. It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.
civil service system
the legal system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected
the system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades on levels, and appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations
independent regulatory commission
an agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy
major administrative unit with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
businesses established by Congress to perform functions that can be provided by private businesses
independent executive agencies
governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility (such as the Central Intelligence Agency) and are not part of any Cabinet department
the 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
the 1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act. Federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections.
the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy
the relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees
the loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies
the ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions
a quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative act
rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law
a quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes
rules or regulations issued by the president that have the effect of law. All (answer) must be published in the Federal Register.
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