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the body's physical response to the need for food; triggered by the digestive tract


the desire, rather than the need, to eat certain foods; triggered by sight, smell, mood, friends, time of day, time of year


the feeling of being full. Food causes the stomach to stretch, which sends a "stop eating" message to the brain

Factors that affect the amount and type of food chosen to eat

1. smell/taste of food
2. mood
3. family traditions/ethnic background
4. social occasions
5. religious traditions
6. health concerns
7. advertising
8. cost and availability

junk food

food that tastes good but is high in calories having little nutritional value example: potato chips

energy-giving nutrients

1. carbohydrates 4 calories/gram
2. fats 9 calories/gram
3. proteins 4 calories/gram

how excess food energy is stored

excess dietary fats and proteins are stored in the body as fat. When glycogen stores are full, excess dietary carbs are then stored as fat

reasons for eating breakfast

1. you must depend on stored energy to fuel your body and brain if you go without
2. quick source of energy for your body and glucose for your brain
3. without it, blood glucose may fall too low and symptoms of hypoglycemic (hypo=under) shock develop. These include nervous irritability, fainting, convulsions, and coma

calories needed by boys 15-18 years old


calories needed by girls 15-18 years old


number of calories needed per day

depends on how much energy your body is using. The more active you are, the more energy your body uses

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

the minimum amount of energy needed to keep you alive when you are in a rested, fasting state

energy balance

when the amount of food energy you take in (consume) is equal to the amount of energy you use
intake = output

weight remains the same

when intake is equal to ouput

weight gained

when intake is MORE than output

weight lost

when intake is LESS than ouput


being heavy for one's height; having excess body fat


a quantity much larger than is needed


having excess body fat for ones height; weighing more than 20% above your recommended weight

problems with overweight/obesity

heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea

reasons people are overweight

1. lack of physical activity
2. changing diet

how to avoid becoming overweight

1. weight management plan
2. exercise
3. healthy diet

your weight

combination of heredity and lifestyle


the passing of traits from parents to offspring


typical way in which someone chooses to live

healthy body weight

depends on:
1. body composition
2. body mass index (BMI)

body composition

fat tissues vs. bone and muscle (lean tissue)
Healthy range is 19-25% for females and 10-17% for males

Body Mass Index (BMI)

an index of weight in relation to height that is used to assess healthy body weight
Healthy range is 18.5 - 25

Weight Management Plan

a program of sensible eating and exercise habits that will help keep weight at a healthy level. The focus should be slow or stop weight gain, not to cause weight loss.

smart weight loss strategies

1. eat fewer calories
2. burn more calories through exercise
3. eat at least 1,400 to 1,600 calories a day for teens
4. eat mainly low-calorie foods from the five food groups
5. eat foods you like
6. make meals last, take small bites
7. choose low calorie snacks

smart weight gain strategies

1. increase calorie intake
2. eat more frequently, take second helpings
3. eat nutritious snacks

dangerous weight loss practices

1. fat diets
2. diet pills
3. fasting
4. surgery


going without food for a period of time

abnormal eating patterns

never eating enough, eating only certain foods, eating too much, dieting all the time, not responding to fullness or hunger
These may be warning signs of an eating disorder

eating disorder

conditions that involve an unhealthy degree of concern about body weight and shape and that may lead to efforts to control weight by unhealthy means

body image

how you see and feel about your appearance and how comfortable you are with your body. It can change with your mood, environment and experiences

healthy body image

1. accept your body's appearance and abilities
2. listen to what your body tells you
3. paying attention to, appreciating, and caring for your body
4. having realistic expectations about your size based on heredity
5. realize that weight and body shape can change frequently and rapidly in teens

most common eating disorders

anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, disordered eating patterns

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder that involves self-starvation, a distorted body image, and low body weight

binge-eating disorder/bingeing

eating a large amount of food in one sitting; usually accompanied by a feeling of being out of control


eating or drinking too much


engaging in behaviors such as vomiting or misusing laxatives to rid the body of food

bulimia nervosa

binging and purging; an eating disorder in which the individual repeatedly eats large amounts of food and then uses behaviors such as vomiting or using laxatives to rid the body of the food

disordered eating patterns

disordered eating behaviors not severe enough to be classified as a specific eating disorder; have some signs and symptoms of eating disorders but not to the same extent

dangers of eating disorders

hair loss, dental (teeth) problems, broken blood vessels in the face and eyes, dry scaly skin, severe dehydration (lack of water), rectal bleeding from laxative abuse, heart irregularities, organ failure, death

risk factors for eating disorders

preferring to eat alone; being overly critical about the body size and shape; thinking about food often; weighting themselves everyday; eating a lot of "diet" food

professional help

help from physicians (doctors), psychologists, and nutritionists is essential to manage and recover from an eating disorder

eating disorder prevention

1. learn to like yourself, just as you are
2. set realistic goals
3. ask for support from friends and family when stressed
4. learn the basics of good nutrition and exercise
5. talk to a doctor or a professional dietitian who specializes in weight control if you want to lose weight
6. Ask an adult for help if you suspect you or a friend has an eating disorder problem

Body composition

the proportion of body weight that is made up of fat tissue compared to lean tissue

fad diet

a diet that requires a major change in eating habits and promises quick weight loss


body shape where fat is stored around the midsection (abdomen)


body shape where fat is stored around the hips, thighs, and buttocks

gastric bypass

a weight-loss surgery that changes the structure of the digestive tract by bypassing part of the stomach and sometimes the intestine


water pills; increases the amount of water lost through urination, which leads to weight loss

Female athlete triad

a potentially fatal syndrome that occurs in active girls and women in many different sports; involves a combination of disordered eating behaviors, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis (the triad)

muscle dysmorphia

"reverse anorexia" among males; fear of being too small and not muscular enough

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