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56 terms

Food and Your Body Weight

health
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hunger
the body's physical response to the need for food; triggered by the digestive tract
appetite
the desire, rather than the need, to eat certain foods; triggered by sight, smell, mood, friends, time of day, time of year
satiety
the feeling of being full. Food causes the stomach to stretch, which sends a "stop eating" message to the brain
Factors that affect the amount and type of food chosen to eat
1. smell/taste of food
2. mood
3. family traditions/ethnic background
4. social occasions
5. religious traditions
6. health concerns
7. advertising
8. cost and availability
junk food
food that tastes good but is high in calories having little nutritional value example: potato chips
energy-giving nutrients
1. carbohydrates 4 calories/gram
2. fats 9 calories/gram
3. proteins 4 calories/gram
how excess food energy is stored
excess dietary fats and proteins are stored in the body as fat. When glycogen stores are full, excess dietary carbs are then stored as fat
reasons for eating breakfast
1. you must depend on stored energy to fuel your body and brain if you go without
2. quick source of energy for your body and glucose for your brain
3. without it, blood glucose may fall too low and symptoms of hypoglycemic (hypo=under) shock develop. These include nervous irritability, fainting, convulsions, and coma
calories needed by boys 15-18 years old
3000
calories needed by girls 15-18 years old
2,300
number of calories needed per day
depends on how much energy your body is using. The more active you are, the more energy your body uses
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the minimum amount of energy needed to keep you alive when you are in a rested, fasting state
energy balance
when the amount of food energy you take in (consume) is equal to the amount of energy you use
intake = output
weight remains the same
when intake is equal to ouput
weight gained
when intake is MORE than output
weight lost
when intake is LESS than ouput
overweight
being heavy for one's height; having excess body fat
excess
a quantity much larger than is needed
obesity
having excess body fat for ones height; weighing more than 20% above your recommended weight
problems with overweight/obesity
heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea
reasons people are overweight
1. lack of physical activity
2. changing diet
how to avoid becoming overweight
1. weight management plan
2. exercise
3. healthy diet
your weight
combination of heredity and lifestyle
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
lifestyle
typical way in which someone chooses to live
healthy body weight
depends on:
1. body composition
2. body mass index (BMI)
body composition
fat tissues vs. bone and muscle (lean tissue)
Healthy range is 19-25% for females and 10-17% for males
Body Mass Index (BMI)
an index of weight in relation to height that is used to assess healthy body weight
Healthy range is 18.5 - 25
Weight Management Plan
a program of sensible eating and exercise habits that will help keep weight at a healthy level. The focus should be slow or stop weight gain, not to cause weight loss.
smart weight loss strategies
1. eat fewer calories
2. burn more calories through exercise
3. eat at least 1,400 to 1,600 calories a day for teens
4. eat mainly low-calorie foods from the five food groups
5. eat foods you like
6. make meals last, take small bites
7. choose low calorie snacks
smart weight gain strategies
1. increase calorie intake
2. eat more frequently, take second helpings
3. eat nutritious snacks
dangerous weight loss practices
1. fat diets
2. diet pills
3. fasting
4. surgery
fasting
going without food for a period of time
abnormal eating patterns
never eating enough, eating only certain foods, eating too much, dieting all the time, not responding to fullness or hunger
These may be warning signs of an eating disorder
eating disorder
conditions that involve an unhealthy degree of concern about body weight and shape and that may lead to efforts to control weight by unhealthy means
body image
how you see and feel about your appearance and how comfortable you are with your body. It can change with your mood, environment and experiences
healthy body image
1. accept your body's appearance and abilities
2. listen to what your body tells you
3. paying attention to, appreciating, and caring for your body
4. having realistic expectations about your size based on heredity
5. realize that weight and body shape can change frequently and rapidly in teens
most common eating disorders
anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, disordered eating patterns
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder that involves self-starvation, a distorted body image, and low body weight
binge-eating disorder/bingeing
eating a large amount of food in one sitting; usually accompanied by a feeling of being out of control
binge
eating or drinking too much
purging
engaging in behaviors such as vomiting or misusing laxatives to rid the body of food
bulimia nervosa
binging and purging; an eating disorder in which the individual repeatedly eats large amounts of food and then uses behaviors such as vomiting or using laxatives to rid the body of the food
disordered eating patterns
disordered eating behaviors not severe enough to be classified as a specific eating disorder; have some signs and symptoms of eating disorders but not to the same extent
dangers of eating disorders
hair loss, dental (teeth) problems, broken blood vessels in the face and eyes, dry scaly skin, severe dehydration (lack of water), rectal bleeding from laxative abuse, heart irregularities, organ failure, death
risk factors for eating disorders
preferring to eat alone; being overly critical about the body size and shape; thinking about food often; weighting themselves everyday; eating a lot of "diet" food
professional help
help from physicians (doctors), psychologists, and nutritionists is essential to manage and recover from an eating disorder
eating disorder prevention
1. learn to like yourself, just as you are
2. set realistic goals
3. ask for support from friends and family when stressed
4. learn the basics of good nutrition and exercise
5. talk to a doctor or a professional dietitian who specializes in weight control if you want to lose weight
6. Ask an adult for help if you suspect you or a friend has an eating disorder problem
Body composition
the proportion of body weight that is made up of fat tissue compared to lean tissue
fad diet
a diet that requires a major change in eating habits and promises quick weight loss
apple-shaped
body shape where fat is stored around the midsection (abdomen)
pear-shaped
body shape where fat is stored around the hips, thighs, and buttocks
gastric bypass
a weight-loss surgery that changes the structure of the digestive tract by bypassing part of the stomach and sometimes the intestine
diuretics
water pills; increases the amount of water lost through urination, which leads to weight loss
Female athlete triad
a potentially fatal syndrome that occurs in active girls and women in many different sports; involves a combination of disordered eating behaviors, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis (the triad)
muscle dysmorphia
"reverse anorexia" among males; fear of being too small and not muscular enough