Vocabulary Review - TExES 152 School Counselor

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Ego defense mechanisms
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Object relationsThe theory that describes the interactional system of self and other, this theory is strongly based in development of conceptsOedipus ComplexThe unconscious sexual feelings of assignment toward his mother coupled with hostility towards his fatherProjectionThe tendency on the part of client to attribute to others qualities that are acceptable in his or her own personalityPsychic energyThe drive that propels a person's behavior and psychological functioningRationalizationThe method of explaining failures or negative occurrencesReaction formationAn ego defense mechanism where a client strives to hide a socially unacceptable thought or feeling with behavior that is considered appropriateRegressionAnd ego defense mechanism of reverting to a less mature stage of developmentRepressionThe unconscious acts of pushing an acceptable or painful experiences into the unconsciousResistanceThe clients unwillingness to share feelings or thoughts or to make changes in order for the psycho analytic process to be successfulSublimationThe process of redirecting sexual and other biological energy into socially acceptable and creative avenuesSuper egoThe part of the personality that determines what is right and wrong and strives to be goodSymbiosisA relationship between two individuals that is advantageous or necessary to both if an individual does not progressed beyond the stage borderline personality disorder can developTransferenceThe fostering of emotions originally experienced toward one individual upon another individual not connected with the original experience, usually the therapistWorking throughThe process of exploring the unconscious material, ego defenses, transference and resistanceEncouragementThe process used in therapy to help clients reach realistic goals by using all their resources recognizing the positive traits in transforming negative traits into positive assetsFamily constellationsPictures of family dynamics in relationshipsFictional finalismThe ideal image one sees oneself becoming, one's ultimate goalHolismThe viewing of one's personality as a wholeImmediacyDealing with the present moment in the counseling processIndividual psychologyThe uniqueness and unity of the individualIndividualityThe way we develop our own style of striving for competenceInferiority feelingsThe negative feeling one has about oneself. these feelings can be both real and imaginedLife tasksThe lifework all humans to attain a satisfying lifestyleLifestyleThe way in which one perceives life and upon which the personality is formedMotivational modificationThe therapist interest is helping clients to want their negative lifestyle goals in challenging their basic negative conceptsParadoxical intentionThe technique that is characterized by helping the client invoke exaggerated debilitating thoughts and behaviors helping the client except and conquer his or her resistance thus . becoming more aware of his or her behavior and being responsible for the consequences of that behaviorPhenomenological orientationThe technique of the therapist that attempts to view the world from the clients point of viewPrioritiesA coping method used to obtain satisfaction in life by pointing out a clients priorities the therapist hopes to help client realize the feelings involved in others in the price the client pays by clinging to these negative prioritiesPrivate logicThe central psychological framework of the client the philosophy upon which one bases one's lifestyle including basic mistakes in faulty assumptions that often do not conform to realityPush buttonA technique that teaches the client that she can control their thoughts and feelingsSocial interestThe attitude a client has regarding society a sense of empathy in identification with the larger communitySpitting in the clients soupA technique that reduces the usefulness of a clients manipulative behavior by pointing out the manipulation of therapist actively defeats the clients anticipated results of the manipulationStriving for superiorityThe desire to become competent and perfect; also known as the "growth force"Tasks Setting and commitmentThe technique taught to the client to formulate realistic attainable goals that can be revise if necessaryAssertive trainingTeaching skills and techniques for dealing with difficult situations in ways that are direct firm and clear assertive training often challenges believes that accompany a lack of assertiveness and employs the technique of rehearsalBASIC IDIn acronym for the seven major areas of personality functioning: behavior, affect, sensations, imagery, cognition , interpersonal and drugs/biology(LazarusBehavior rehearsalA technique of trying out new behavioral approaches that can be used in real life situationsCoachingProviding client with general principles of how to make effective behavioral changesCognitive restructuringThe process of identifying and understanding the impact of negative behavior and thoughts as well as learning to replace them with more realistic and appropriate actions and beliefsContingency contractingThe specific delineation of behavior to be performed changed or discontinued along with the reward for performance of these contractual items,the conditions under which the rewards are to be received in the limit of time involvedCounterconditioningThe process of retraining problem behaviors and introducing new behaviorsFeedbackThe process of providing the client with verbal responses to behavior changes. The two parts of feedback are encouragement and praise for attempting the behavior change and specific suggestions for making the behavior change work betterModelingThe process of showing new ways to do something the therapist can help the client do this by role-playing the type of behavior that is desired Albert Bandura has done much of the work in this areaMultimodal therapyThe process the therapist evokes in making an evaluation of the clients level of functioning at the beginning of the therapy and subsequently adjusting procedures and techniques to the goals of the client the behavior change is a function of techniques strategies and modeling Arnold Lazarus developed this type of therapyNegative reinforcementWhen the removal of an aversive stimulus is likely to increase the problem behaviorOperant conditioningA concept by BF Skinner that says behaviors of an active organism are controlled and controllable even without actual consequences each timePositive reinforcementA conditioning technique where an individual receives a desirable result for a path to behavior that subsequently increases the probability of that behavior reoccurringProgressive relaxationA technique employed to increase the ability of the client to control his or her stress level by gradually having the client relaxReinforcementA specific response to a behavior that increases the probability of that behavior being repeatedSelf instructional training/ managementStrategies used to teach coping skills in problem situations such as anxiety, depression and pain. Realistic goals are set and constantly evaluated. the consistent use of a particular strategy is essential and support systems are important as are the use of self reinforcement in order to achieve successSelf monitoring...PsychoanalyticSigmund Freud emphasizes the division of the personality and the importance of the past for the reason for problems in the presentAdlerianAlfred Adler stresses the conscious as the center of the personality. Stress is on an individual's positive attitude to give meaning and direction to his or her life through behavior changesBehavior TherapyLazurus, Bandura, and Wolpe stress changing behavior based not on past heistory but upon present situations. It is action based therapy motivated by the agreed upon goals of the individual and empirical evaluation of outcomesRational Emotive Behavior TherapyAlbert Ellis holds that although problems began in childhood, they continue due to irrational and illogical thinking. Growth comes from the correction of these irrational thoughts and the identification of the reality of the momentExistential therapyVictor Frankl expounds the developmental concepts of the capacity for self-awareness, the acceptance of responsibility for our freedom, the preservation of our identity, human mortality, ever present anxiety, and the significance of death to the livingClient-Centered TherapyCarl Rogers emphasizes the ability of one to direct one's life without the interpretation of a therapist, to experience the present moment, to accept oneself and to determine the methods to change one's own behaviorGestalt TherapyFrederick "Fritz" Pearls focuses on the acceptance of responsibility, to experience the present, to resolve unfinished business from the past in order to move on, to deal with impasses in our lives by challenging the ways we use to fight our reaching the realization of our ability to solve our own problemsReality TherapyWilliam Glasser explains that behavior is our method to control our environment to fit our inner needs. He attempts to help individuals develop better ways of meting the inner needs we have through the acceptance of the reality of our situationsTransactional AnalysisEric Berne believes that people operate in three ego states and that awareness is an important first step in changing our ways of thinking, feeling and behaving. Three basic needs are stimulus, recognition and structure.Brief TherapyRosenberg and Wright maintain that this therapy is well suited to managed care and others include the school counseling setting. The group therapist sets clear and realistic treatment goals with the members, maintains an active therapist role and works within a set and limited time frame.Principles of Group CounselingThe rights of group participants - informed consent, knowledge of purpose and format of group, knowledge of responsibilities of group members, confidentiality, freedom from coercion and freedom to leave group. Stages of the group process - initial (orientation and exploration), transition (goal-setting), working stage (cohesion and productivity); final stage (consolidation and termination).Techniques of Group CounselingRecruitment of group members; size limitation of group; physical setting; establishing group trust; communicating responsibilities of group members; setting goals/use of contracts; journal writing, art, check lists, role-play etc; dealing with conflicts, fears, resistance; validation of members, celebration of progress, consolidation and terminationBenefits of school counselingprovides non-threatening environment for students to resolve issues; conveninent and cost effective for students/parents; provides support system for students; facilitates realistic goal setting; provides opportunity for feedback from peers; guidance from counselor who understands school life and issuesLimitations of school counselingTime limitations of counselor, especially with individual counseling; shorter than idea counseling sessions (short-term); confidentiality of grup members may be limited; school counselor can't effectively work with the whole family systemWhen to consult or refer to other mental health professionalsWhen the student discloses plans to hurt himself or others Minor use of alcohol or drugs child abuse family violence symptoms of anorexia or bulimia significant signs of depression chronic problems with no progress consistent at-risk behaviors threatening statements cutting or body mutilation debilitating family dysfunctionHow to refer students to other mental health professionals and agenciesCPS for related issues School district/drug/acohol counselors for related issues Conference with parents and/or teacher and/or student Provide names of local mental health professionals and agencies upon parent request. Use of statements like "Have you considered ..." or "Some parents decide to ..."How do professional school counselors access research resources?Professional organizations (ASCA) Peer-reviewed journals Library or Internet (cautiously)What factors are important for school counselors to examine when interpreting research?Asks important questions Sound research design with clear goals Legal and ethical Instruments should be validatedGood quantitative research methods allow for:Generalization Prediction Testing of hypothesisGood qualitative research methods can provide for:Understanding phenomena/processes that can serve exploratory purposes and provide deep knowledgeBenefits of membership in professional organizations include:Advocacy Professional development Lobbying efforts Liability insurance Networking Accessibility to resources Professional learning communitiesThe field of school counseling has gone through what three major periods?Formative Transitional ContemporaryBenchmarks during the FORMATIVE period of the school counseling profession included:1900's Frank Parson becomes proponent of guidance counseling Focus on growth and prevention Jessie B. Davis implements regular guidance, emphasis on vocational/career instruction 1930's Personnel responsible for student services 1940's Military uses psychologists and counselors to select and recruitBenchmarks during the TRANSITIONAL period of the school counseling profession included:1950's Carl Rogers moves field away from educational guidance and toward client-centered counseling 1953 American School Counseling Association formed 1958 National Defense of Education Act passed allowing for more funding 1960's Dinkmeyer, Myrick, and Gysbers focused on developmentally appropriate, evidence-based school counseling structureBenchmarks during the CONTEMPORARY period of the school counseling profession included:1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act increases services Leads to Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) 1997 ASCA National Standards developed with holistic point of view 2003 ASCA National Framework developed to provide guidelines on an effective school counseling programTrends in the educational systemPositive behavior support Professional learning communitiesASCA National Model ensures1. Equitable access to education 2. Specific knowledge and skills will be gained by K-12 students 3. School counseling services delivered to all systematically 4. School counseling services are data-driven 5. School counseling services are provided by state-credentialed counselorASCA RecommendationsRatio 1:250 80% of time spent in direct or indirect services to studentsASCA National Model is made of three parts:FOUNDATION- Component that drive school counseling program MANAGEMENT- Assessments and tools that manage a school counseling program DELIVERY- Method of delivering programming ACCOUNTABILITY- Helps professional school counselors analyze dataASCA National Model FOUNDATIONProgram focus- Mission statement and goals Student competencies- Academic, career, and personal/social development Professional competencies- Knowledge, attitudes, and skills of good counselingASCA National Model MANAGEMENTSchool counselor competency/program assessment Use-of-time assessment Annual Agreements Advisory councils Curriculum, small group, close-the-gap action plans Annual and weekly calendarsASCA National Model DELIVERYDirect services School counseling core curriculum Individual student planning Responsive services Indirect servicesASCA National Model ACCOUNTABILITYUsing data to measure impact of services Guide new programming Judge performanceASCA National Model THEMESLeadership Advocacy Collaboration Effective relationships Systemic changeASCA National StandardsAcademic Career Personal/SocialASCA National Standards for ACADEMIC developmentA: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills that contribute to effective learning B: Complete school prepared for college C: Understand the relationship between education and workASCA National Standards for CAREER developmentA: Skills to investigate the world of work B: Employ strategies to achieve occupational goals C: Understand the relationship between personal qualities, education, training, and work.ASCA National Standards for PERSONAL/SOCIAL developmentA: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills to understand self and others B: Make decisions, set goals, take action C: Safety and survival skillsSchool counselor roles:Counselor Leader Advocate Collaborator Consultant CoordinatorElementary school counselors:Help students develop their academic self-concept Teach decision making, communication, and life skills Provide early education, prevention, and intervention servicesMiddle school counselors:Help with transition from childhood to adolescence Help students establish identity Help students explore interests Make connections between school and workHigh school counselors:Help students transition to adulthood and its responsibilities Guide students toward graduation and post-secondary schooling Develop sense of selfNON-counseling dutiesDiscipline, substitute teaching, managing school functionsCognitive Development TheoristsPiaget VygotskyPiagetDriving force is our experiences with our environment Schemas- mental molds Assimilation- adding new experiences Accommodation- adjusting to fit new infoPaiget's Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor (birth-2 years): Experience the world through senses Preoperational (2-7 years): Representing things with words and images, more intuition, less logic Concrete operational (7-11 years): Thinking logically about concrete events, math Formal operational (11- adulthood): Abstract reasoningVygotskyChildren construct their knowledge Development cannot be separated from social context Learning leads to development Language plays central roleVygotsky's Zone of Proximal DevelopmentWhat is known- ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (Skills too difficult for a child to master on their own, needs guidance and encouragement from a knowledgeable person) What is unknown-Personality and emotional development theoristsErikson Skinner RogersEriksonConflicts Trust v. Mistrust: Feeding Autonomy v. Doubt: Toilet training Initiative v. Guilt: Exploration Industry v. Inferiority: School Identity v. Role Confusion: Social relationships Intimacy v. Isolation: Relationships Generativity v. Stagnation: Work and parenthood Ego Integrity v. Despair: Reflection on lifeSkinnerOperant conditioning Behavior leads to consequence Positive consequence- Repeat behavior Negative consequence- Do not repeat behaviorRogersHUMAN NEED + OTHER'S RESPONSE = RESULT Self actualization + Unconditional pos regard= Self actualization Need for pos regard + conditional pos regard = Self discrepancies Self-actualization Self-esteem Love and belonging safety and security physiological needsRogers Incongruent v. CongruentIncongruent: There is a large difference between self-image and ideal-self (difficult to self-actualize) Congruent: Self-image is similar to ideal-self (likely to self-actualize)Social and Character DevelopmentAdler Kohlberg FrommAdlerSocio Teleo Analytic Theory (social) (Goal) (Analyze) People need: To develop and work to achieve meaningful and rewarding goals A lifestyle that leads to a positive sense of ourselves Connectedness to community Satisfying work Emphasis on birth orderKohlbergMoral development Preconventional- Punishment/obedience and Intrumental relativism Conventional- Interpersonal concordance and Authority maintaining Postconventional- Social contract and Universal ethical principleFrommHumans are lonely and have become separated from nature and one another. Freedom is important: embrace (psychological health) or escape (psychological issues)?Family Systems TheoryFamily is made up of independent individuals and subsystems. Whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Families have boundaries and are part of a larger social context. Systems are homeostatic and try to return to normalcy after stress.Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory1. You 2. Microsystem (family, school, peers, work, church) 3. Mesosystem (family, school, peers, work, church) 4. Exosystem (Economic, political, education, government) 5. Macrosystem (Overarching beliefs and values) 6. Chronosystem (Dimension of time)ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to StudentsResponsibilities to students Confidentiality Academic, Career/College/Post-Secondary Access and Personal/Social Counseling Plans Dual Relationships Appropriate Referrals Group Work Danger to Self or Others Student Records Evaluation, Assessment and Interpretation Technology Student Peer Support ProgramASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to ParentsParent Rights and Responsibilities Parents/Guardians and ConfidentialityASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Colleagues and Professional AssociatesProfessional Relationships Sharing Information with Other Professionals Collaborating and Educating Around the Role of the School CounselorASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Schools, Communities, and FamiliesResponsibilities to the School Responsibility to the CommunityASCA Ethical Responsibility to the SelfProfessional Competence Multicultural and Social Justice Advocacy and LeadershipASCA Ethical Responsibility to the ProfessionProfessionalism Contribution to the Profession Supervision of School Counselor Candidates Pursuing Practicum and Internship Experiences Collaboration and Education about School Counselors and School Counseling Programs with other ProfessionalsASCA Ethical Responsibility to Maintenance of StandardsCollegaues ethical behavior Forced to work in unethical situations Ethical dilemmasEthical Decision Making Model1. Define the problem emotionally and intellectually 2. Apply the ASCA Ethical Standards and the law 3. Consider the students' chronological and developmental levels 4. Consider the setting, parental rights and minors' rights 5. Apply the moral principles 6. Determine Your potential courses of action and their consequences 7. Evaluate the selected action 8. Consult 9. Implement the course of actionSection 504 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Civil rights statue Guarantees access to education for students with an identified physical or mental condition that substantially limits a major life activity. Ex: Student with diabetes permitted to use the bathroom at any time without asking permission.IDEA Individualized Education Plan (IEP)Federal programming statue Guarantees services for students with disabilities Must have comprehensive evaluation Requires informed consent Reevaluation if conditions warrant, request from parent/teacher, or every three years If parents disagree with first evaluation, district must pay for second opinion Must include: Referral, Assessment, Modifications, Accommodations Ex: Student with autism assigned an aide for classroom work, paid for by districtHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)Intended to protect the privacy of a medical patient's identifiable health records. Requires signed release for information to be shared.Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)Protects a student's educational records and is specific to educational institutions that receive federal funding.Title IX of the Education AmendmentsProhibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin, or sex in programs or activities that receive federal funding. Cannot discriminate in the following ways: Appraisal and counseling materials Testing instruments Internal control Disproportionate classesTitle II and Perkins ActGives funding to post-secondary institutions for preparing students to be competitive in world economy. Ex: Tech programsGroup Counseling BenefitsNatural interpesonal context for students Creates safe context w/n which students can practice interpersonal skills and get feedback Allow students to hear form others with similar experiences Allow many more student to be served by counselor then in one-on-one activitiesGroup Counseling Stages1. Orientation (forming) 2. Power struggle (storming) 3. Cooperation and integration (norming) 4. Synergy (performing) 5. Closure (adjourning)Group Counseling Facilitator's RoleEncourage group development of expression, exploration, and self-disclosure, to discourage dynamics that hinder expression and openness and to model healthy, appropriate interpersonal communicationCareer development theoriesTrait Factor Holland's Career Typology Super ConstructivistTrait Factor TheoryOccupational decision making occurs when: A person has an accurate understanding of their traits (aptitudes, interests, personal abilities) A knowledge of jobs and the labor market An objective judgement about the relationship between their individual traits and the labor market. Ex: True ColorsHolland's Career TypologyPersonalities fall into 6 categories, certain careers suit certain personalities 1. Realistic 2. Investigative 3. Artistic 4. Social 5. Enterprising 6. Conventional Ex: Strong Interest InventorySuperSelf-knowledge is important as we take on career to express and understand ourselves. Career development is cyclic 1. Growth 2. Exploration 3. Establishment 4. Maintenance 5. DisengagementConsultationTriadic process through which the consultant (counselor) assists the consultee in his relationship with someone else. Ex: Counselor helps a teacher with a studentBehavioral Consultation Approachschool counselor actively obtains and evaluates student data, which is used to advise other staff members (such as teachers) how to best help the student. With a behavioral consultation approach, it is a triadic consultation (among counselor, teacher and student), and is considered depended because the counselee (teacher) relies on the school counselor to collect and interpret the behavioral data.CollaborationProcess that takes consultation a step further. The consultant (counselor) takes at least a partial responsibility for implementing the plan made through the consultation. Ex: The counselor who has consulted with a teacher about a student behavior might also work directly with the student.Consultation and Collaboration RolesAdvisor- Offers suggestions and expertise Advocate- Provides support and acts on behalf of other party Collaborator- Participates as team member Facilitator- Leads group Mediator- Provides conflict resolution frameworkConsultation TypesTriadic-Dependent Collaborative-Dependent Collaborative-IndependentTriadic-Dependent3 person relationship with consultant (counselor) indirectly bringing about change in the student through direct services with the consultee, usually the parent or teacher. The consultant is contributing expertise.Collaborative-DependentThe constant (counselor) facilitates the problem-solving process while establishing mutual goals and agreed on interventions with the consultee who then delivers the intervention. BOTH the consultant and consultee are contributing expertise.Collaborative-IndependentTeam approach with consultant facilitating the process as well as contributing expertise as one of its members.Intervention LevelsPrimary, Secondary, TertiaryPrimary InterventionDesigned to keep problems from emerging. For students without serious behavior problems. Ex: Violence prevention programSecondary InterventionDesigned to reverse or preclude harm from exposure to risk factors For students at risk for problems behaviors Ex: Adult mentorsTertiary InterventionDesigned to reduce, rather than reverse, harm among the most severely involved individuals. For students with chronic/intense behavior problems Ex: Individual or family counseling servicesRational Emotive Behavior TherapyAlbert Ellis (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy technique) A= Activating Event B= Belief C= Conclusion Ex: Student doing poorly in math because he believes he is unable to understand it.Reality TherapyWilliam Glasser Based on Choice Theory (the need to love and belong being most important) Help clients learn better ways to fulfill their needs Assumptions: 1. Present behavior is not getting them what they want. 2. Humans are motivated to change when they believe they can choose other behaviors that will get them closer to what they want. Counselor is positive and instills hope in client. W= Wants and needs D= Direction and doing E= Self-evaluation P= PlanningChoice TheoryAll human need survival, love and belonging, power or achievement, freedom or independence, and funCounseling, collaborating, consultingCounseling= Direct service Consultation= Indirect service, systemic approach aimed at individuals or groups Collaboration= Indirect service, working as a team to solve problem4 Step Behavioral ModelUsed in triadic dependent consultation 1. Define (look at environmental conditions that maintain the problem) 2. Generate solutions for behavior change and social context change. 3. Implement the plan 4. Evaluate the plan.Crisis Incident Stress Management1) Introduction: discuss confidentiality, ground rules 2) Fact Phase: talk about known facts, dispel rumors 3) Thought Phase: reflect upon immediate thoughts 4) Reaction Phase: identify most traumatic aspect of event, discuss emotions, provide validation/support 5) Symptom Phase: return participants to cognitive processing of event, identify possible symptoms 6) Teaching Phase: relate symptoms to reactions, normalize reactions, emphasize symptoms should get better, look for positive reactions to event (e.g., "Is there anything positive that you think has come of this?"). 7) Closure/Re-Entry: final opportunity to summarize event and identify supports (peer, family, community).Erik Erikson's Stages of DevelopmentTrust vs. Mistrust (birth-18 months) Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3 years) Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years) Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12) Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (12-18 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Isolation Integrity vs. DespairJean PiagetSensorimotor (birth to 2) beginning of problem solving Pro-operational (2-7 years) Conservation and reversibility Concrete Operational (7-12 years) Classification and identification, inferences Formal operation (13 years-adult) Abstract thinkingLawrence KohlbergPremoral - Punishment-reward; relates to self Conventional - Rule conformity; approval of others Morality of self-accepted moral principles - contractual societal obligations; individual principles and conscienceBloom's TaxonomyKnowledge; Comprehension; Application; Analysis; Synthesis; EvaluationDevelopmental Stages - Interventionsacademic placement, accommodations, group counseling, peer tutoring, mentoring, referral to community agenciesLack of industry leads to ...inferiority. To address, design appropriate interventions such as check lists or breaking assignments into small segments.Atypical behaviors may lead to behavior monitoring that includes use of specific instruments such as ...behavior plans or communication logs; group counseling or referral to a community agencyCareer AwarenessK-6 - Awareness of self, various occupations and role of work in societyCareer Exploration6-10 - Development of concents and basic skills related to self and world of workCareer Orientation10-12 - Knowledge for entry into an occupation, ethical work habits, plans for post-secondary education or trainingPost SecondaryReaffirmation of occupational choice by further exploration of interests and aptitudes, development of career skills and interpersonal skillsFreud's Stages of Development・Oral Stage: gratification from oral activities (eg: sucking). Fixation leads to dependence, depression, & gullibility {Birth-1 year} ・Anal Stage: gratification from anal activities (eg: elimination). Fixation leads to anal retentive traits (eg: excessive neatness) or anal expulsive traits (eg: sloppiness) {1-3 years} ・Phallic Stage: gratification from stimulation of genital region. Fixation leads to phallic traits (eg: vanity) {3-6 years} ・Latency Stage: sexual impulses suppressed, allowing child to focus on development of social & technological skills {6-12 years} ・Genital Stage: sexual impulses reappear, with gratification sought through sexual relations with an adult of the other/same sex {adolescence}Name of Erikson's Stage: Birth to 12-18 monthsTrust vs. MistrustName of Erikson's Stage: 12-18 months to 3 yearsAutonomy vs. Shame & DoubtName of Erikson's Stage: 3 years to 5-6 yearsInitiative vs. GuiltName of Erikson's Stage: 5-6 years to adolescenceIndustry vs. InferiorityName of Erikson's Stage: adolescence to adulthoodIdentity vs. Role DiffusionName of Erikson's Stage: early adulthoodIntimacy vs. IsolationName of Erikson's Stage: middle adulthoodGenerativity vs. Stagnation/Self-AbsorptionName of Erikson's Stage: late adulthoodEgo-Integrity vs. DespairFreud equivalent: Trust vs. MistrustOralFreud equivalent: Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtAnalFreud equivalent: Initiative vs. GuiltPhallicFreud equivalent: Industry vs. InferiorityLatencyFreud equivalent: Identity vs. Role DiffusionGenitalPositive outcome: Trust vs. MistrustOthers are dependable and reliableNegative outcome: Trust vs. MistrustFear and concern regarding othersPositive outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame and DoubtSelf-sufficiencyNegative outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame and DoubtDoubts about self, lack of independencePositive outcome: Initiative vs. GuiltCan independently plan and take actionNegative outcome: Initiative vs. GuiltGuilt from actions and thoughtsPositive outcome: Industry vs. InferiorityDevelopment of sense of competenceNegative outcome: Industry vs. InferiorityLack of self-confidence, little sense of masteryPositive outcome: Identity vs. Role DiffusionAwareness of uniqueness of self, knowledge of rolesNegative outcome: Identity vs. Role DiffusionInability to identify appropriate roles in lifePositive outcome: Intimacy vs. IsolationDevelopment of loving, sexual relationships and close friendshipsNegative outcome: Intimacy vs. IsolationFear of relationships with othersPositive outcome: Generativity vs. Stagnation/Self-AbsorptionSense of contribution to continuity of lifeNegative outcome: Generativity vs. Stagnation/Self-AbsorptionTrivialization of one's activitiesPositive outcome: Ego Integrity vs. DespairSense of unity in life's accomplishmentsNegative outcome: Ego Integrity vs. DespairRegret over lost opportunities of lifeKey issue(s): Erikson's Trust vs. Mistrust StageDuring this period, infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caregivers.Key issue(s): Erikson's Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt StageDuring this period, children develop independence and autonomy if parents encourage exploration and freedom within safe boundaries. However, if children are restricted and overly protected, they feel shame, self-doubt, and unhappiness.Key issue(s): Erikson's Initiative vs. Guilt StageDuring this period, children's views of themselves change as preschool age children face conflicts between, on the one hand, the desire to act independently of their parents and do things on their own, and, on the other hand, the guilt that comes from failure when they don't succeed.Key issue(s): Erikson's Industry vs. Inferiority StageDuring this period, children strive for academic and social competence with parents, peers, school and the world in general. Success brings feelings of mastery; difficulties lead to feelings of failure and inadequacy, and withdrawal from academics and peer interactions.Key issue(s): Identity vs. Identity Confusion StageAdolescents strive to discover what is unique and distinctive about themselves. This discovery process often involves "trying on" different roles or choices to see if they fit an adolescent's capabilities and views about himself or herself.Key issue(s): Intimacy vs. Isolation StageDuring this period, the focus is on developing close, intimate relationships with others. Selflessness, sexuality and fusing one's identity with one's partner.Key issue(s): Generativity vs. Stagnation/Self-AbsorptionDuring this period, people consider their contributions to family and society. The focus of those who experience generativity is beyond themselves, as they look toward the continuation of their own lives through others.Key issue(s): Ego Integrity vs. DespairThis period is characterized by a process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it. Did they fulfill the possibilities? Did they miss opportunities?Adlerian Brief TherapyAn intervention that is concise, deliberate, direct, efficient, focused, short-term, and purposeful.Basic MistakeFaulty, self defeating perceptions, attitudes and beliefs that may have been appropriate st one time but are no longer useful. These are myths that are influential in shaping personality.Birth OrderAdler identified five psychological positions from which children tend to view life: oldest, second of only two, middle, youngest, and only.Community FeelingAn individual's awareness of being part of the human community. Community feeling embodies the sense of being connected to all humanity and to being committed to making the world a better place.Family ConstellationThe social and psychological structure of the family system; includes birth order, the individual's perception of self, sibling characteristics and ratings, and parental relationships. Each person forms his or her unique view of self, others, and life through the family constellationFictional FinalisimAn imagined central goal that gives direction to behavior and unity to the personality; an image of what people would be like if they were perfect and perfectly secure.Goal AlignmentA congruence between the client's and the counselor's goals and the collaborative effort of two persons working equally toward specific, agreed-on goals.Guiding self idealAnother term for fictional finalism, which represents an individual's image of a goal of perfection.Holistic ConceptWe cannot be understood in parts; all aspects of ourselves must be understood in relation to each other.Individual PsychologyAdler's original name for his approach that stressed understanding the whole person, how all dimensions of a person are interconnected, and how all these dimensions are unified by the person's movement toward a life goalInferiority FeelingsThe early determining force in behavior; the source of human striving and the wellspring of creativity. Humans attempt to compensate for both imagined and real inferiorities, which helps them overcome handicaps.InsightA special form of awareness that facilitates a meaningful understanding within the therapeutic relationship and acts as a foundation for changeInterpretationUnderstanding clients' underlying motives for behaving the way they do in the here and now.Life TasksUniversal problems in human life, including the tasks of friendship (community), work (a division of labor), and intimacy (love and marriage).LifestyleThe core beliefs and assumptions through which the person organizes his or her reality and finds meaning in life events. Our perceptions of self, others, and the world. Our characteristic way of thinking, acting, feeling, living, and striving toward long-term goals.Lifestyle AssessmentThe process of gathering early memories, which involves learning to understand the goals and motivations of the client.Objective InterviewAdlerians seek basic information about the client's life as a part of the lifestyle assessment process.Phenomenological ApproachFocus on the way people perceive their world. For Adlerians, objective reality is less important than how people interpret reality and the meanings they attach to what they experience.Private LogicBasic convictions and assumptions of the individual that underlie the lifestyle pattern and explain how behaviors fit together to provide consistency.ReorientationThe phase of the counseling process in which clients are helped to discover a new and more functional perspective and are encouraged to take risks and make changes in their lives.Social InterestThe phase of the counseling process in which clients are helped to discover a new and more functional perspective and are encouraged to take risks and make changes in their lives.Striving for SuperiorityA strong inclination toward becoming competent, toward mastering the environment, and toward self-improvement.Style of LifeAn individual's way of thinking, feeling, and acting; a conceptual framework by which the world is perceived and by which people are able to cope with life tasks; the person's personality.Subjective InterviewThe process whereby the counselor helps clients tell their life story as completely as possible. The question Used in an initial assessment to gain understanding of the purpose that symptoms or actions have in a person's life. The question is, How would your life be different, and what would you do differently, if you did not have this symptom or problem?Coping Questionsa series of questions the counselor uses to help the client identify previously unrecognized coping skills and strengthsException-seeking Questiona way to help clients discover the times when the identified problem does NOT trouble themMiracle Quesitona technique wherein the counselor encourages the client to imagine what it would be life if the problem he/she is facing where suddenly goneScaling Questiona tool where clients rate teh problem in carying degrees of severity in order to set goals and facilitate changeA-B-C Modelthe construct stating that one's problems do not originate from events but from the beliefs one holds about those events. Changing one's beliefs is the best way to change negative feelingsArbitrary Inferencesthe distorted view of making conclusions without the basis of supporting and relevant exidence; part of Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy.Automatic thoughtsideas (usually outside one's awareness) triggered by a particular event that lead to emotional reactionsCognitive Errorsmisconceptions and wrong assumptions on the part of the clientCognitive Homeworkthe process used to help a client learn to cope with anxiety and challenge irrational thinkingCognitive restructuringthe process of replacing negative thoughts with positive thoughts and beliefsCognitive Therapya type of therapty focused on changing negative behavior by changing false thinking and beliefsCollaborative Empiricisma concept from Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy that views the client as capable of making objective interpretations of his or her behavior, with the collaboration of the therapistCoping Skills Programa set of procedures to help clients cope with stressful situations by changing their thinkingDisputational Methodsa method taught to clients in RET to help them challenge irrational beliefsDistortion of Realityinaccurate thinking causing one to act irrationally, emotionally, and subjectivelyInternal Dialogue/Inner Speechthe process used to recognize irrational thoughtsIrrational Beliefan unreasonable thought leading to emotinal problemsLabel and Mislabelingthe distorted view of basing one's identity on imperfections and mistakes made in the past.Musturbationthe word used by Albert Ellis to descrbe beliefs grounded in musts, shoulds, and oughts; a rigid and absolute way of thinkingOvergeneralizationthe distortied process of forming rigid beliefs based on a single event and then appying them to subsequent eventsPersonalizationthe tendency of individuals to relate events to themselves when there is no basis for this connectionPolarized thinkinga cognitive error based on an all-or-nothing framework. There are no gray areas in polarized thinkingRationalitya way of thinking that will help us attain our goalsRole Playingthe process of helping a client work through irrational beliefsby practicing new behaviorsSelective Abstractionthe distorted view of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an eventSelf-Instructional Therapythe concept that the self-talk an individual indulges in directly relates to the things he or she does in everyday life. The therapy consists of training the client to modify self-talk, a form of cognitive restructuring or cognitive-behavior modification developed by Donald MeichenbaumShame- Attacking Exercisesa technique of RET encouraging the individual to do things about which he or she feels shame without believing he or she is foolish or without becoming embarrassedStress-Inoculation Traininga cognitive-behavior modification technique aimed at giving the client the coping tools to restructure the thoughts that lead to stress, and to rehearse the behavior changes in order to solve the emotional problems caused by stressful situationsAlonenessA natural human condition from which we can derive strength to become free. When mastered we will have the ability to stand beside others to lend them support in their own aloneness.Anxietythe experience we have when we realize we are not immortal, that we face constant choices in an uncertain world, and when we realize we are fundamentally alone.Authenticitythe ability to be true to our own ideas of a meaingful existence and to accept responsibility for the conditions of our lives, a result of the choices we have madeAuthorshipthe concept that we create our own life situations, problems, and destiniesAwarenessthe freedom to choose and act on our choices"Bad Faith"the inauthenticity of not accepting the freedom to take responsibility for our own actionsExistential Guiltthe result of the feelings we have when we premit others to shape our lives and make our choicesExistential Neurosisfeelings of despair resulting from a failure to make our own choicesExistential Vacuuma condition of emptiness and depression that results from a meaningless lifestyleExistentialisma phiosophical movement that stress4es individual responsibility for creating one's own ways of behaving, thinking and feeling.Freedomthe ability to be responsible for our own destiny and accountable for our own actionsLogotherapy- Viktof Frankla branch of existential therapy that challenges clients to search for meaning in lifeMeaninglessnessthe fact that there is no inherent meaning in living, and it is up to us to create our own system of meaningPhenomenologya method used in therapy to utilize subjective experiencecs as therapeutic focus that is used in many existing theoriesRestricted Existencethe condiction of one's functioning with a limited awareness of self and the inability to define the true nature of the problem"The Courage to Be"our ability to live to our fullest capacity, rather than living within the constraints of what others expect; also, the ability to accept limitations and confront the feelings of emptiness that come when we are making new choices.Accurate Empathic Understandingthe therapist's ability ot sense the client's inner world (the clients subjective experience)Congruencea state in which one's own experiences are accurately represented by one's self-concept; there is a matching of inner experience with external expressions; also refers to the genuineness of the therapistFacilitatorthe role the therapist takes in person-centered therapyGenuinenessa state of authenticity resulting from self0analysis and a willingness to accept the truth of who one isHumanistic Psychologya movement emphasizing freedom, choice, values, growth, self0actualization, spontaneity, creativity, play, humor, and psychological healthNondirective Counselingthe type of counseling that assumes the client is the one who knows what is best and should not be in a passive role. This results in the therapist permitting the client to lead the counseling instead of the therapist doing the leading.Incongruencethe discrepancy between self-concept and ideal self-concept. Incongruence usually results in anxiety, which can serve as a clue to the existence of a problemInternal Source of Evaluationthe process of looking to oneself for answers to problemsPersonal Powerthe sense of strength that comes from knowing oneself and one's ability ot mobilize energy. The therapist's ability to access his or her own personal power facilitates the client's development of personal power, rather than controlling other peopleSelf-Actualizationan inner growth force leading ot the development of one's potential and the basis of people being rusted ot resolve their own problems in a therapeutic relationshipTherapeutic Conditionsthe necessary conditions of the therapeutic relationship that allow the client to change. These conditions include therapist congruence, unconditional positive regard, and accurate empathic understandingUnconditional Positive Regardthe acceptance of the client's right ot all of his or her feelings without conditions imposed by the therapistAboutismthe tendency to speak about an incident in the past in contrast to speaking about th esame incident in the presentAvoidancea technique used by clients to keepfrom facing unfinished business, feeling uncomfortable emotions, and having to make changes in their livesAwarenessthe process of exploring one's thinking, feelings, and actionsBlaming Gamesa technique used by clients to avoid taking responsibility for his or her/their growth, to avoid staying in the "now," and to prevent themselves from the pain of experiencing the "here and now"Boundary Disturbance/Resistance to Contacta technique practiced by individuals who attempt to control their environment; it can have both negative and positive consequencesConfluencethe blurring of awareness of the difference between oneself and the environmentConfrontationthe act of becoming aware of differences between verbal and nonverbal expressions, feelings and actions, and thoughts and actionsContact Boundarythe interface, or point of contact, between an individual and the world around him or her, including other peopleDeflectionthe process of distraction or inattention, making it difficult ot sustain contactDichotomy/Polaritya split, in which a person experiences opposing forcesExplosive Layerthe mode of releasing the pretenses of phony roles in order to achieve a sense of relief and releaseHere-and-Now Awarenessthe ability of the client to realize what he or she is experiencing in the present momentImpassethe point at which one is stuck in a stage of less than full maturation. This may be accompanied by feelings of deadness or impending doom and a wish to avoid threatening feelingsImplosive Levelthe mode in which on allows oneself to fully experience one's deadness or inauthenticity. This lead to the chance to make contact with one's genuine selfIntrojectionthe acceptance of others' beliefs and standards without analyzing assimilating, and internalizing themModes of Defensethe five layers of neurotic avoidance: the phony, the phobic, the impasse, the implosive , and te explosivePhobic Layerthe mode of avoiding the emotional pain that comes with recognizing one's real selfPhony Layerthe mode of reacting to others in stereotypical and inauthentic ways, or playing games"Play the Projection"a technique used to help clients see how they project onto others things they do not want to recognize in themselvesProjectiondisowning parts of ourselves by blaming them on the environmentResistancedefenses one develops that prevent fully experiencing the presentRetroflectionturning back to oneself what one would like ot do or have done to othersUnfinished Businessunexpressed feelings (such as resentment, guilt, anger, and grief) from childhood that are presently preventing effective psychological functioningAutonomythe acceptance of responsibility and taking control of the direction of one's life; a state of maturityCommitmentthe ability on the part of the client to continue with a reasonable plan to effect the desired changeControl Theorya theory of why people act the way they do; the internal motivation to master one's own worldInvolvementthe role of the therapist with the client in reality therapy; a vital part of establishing a relationship with the clientPaining Behaviorsthe manifestation of pain symptoms, such as depression, to refocus the problem on the symptoms instead of the behaviorPerceived Worldone's subjective worldPicture Albumthe perceived reality of the client, formulated to meet his or her psychological needsPositive Addictionthe acts performed to gain psychological strength, such as physical activity and meditationResponsibilitythe dependable manner in which we satisfy our needs without interfering with the rights of othersSuccess Identifythe level of self-esteem needed ot carry out hte actions deemed necessary for attaining a more satisfying life experience. The end result of attaining a success identity is that the individual is able to give and receive love, has a sense of self-worth, and possesses the strength to create a satisfying lifeTotal Behaviorthe sum of all our activities that forms our personality and the person we have becomeValue Judgmentthe evaluation of current behaviors to determine their valueWDEP Modelthe abbreviation for hte components of reality therapy; the identification of wants, the direction of behavior, the evaluation of self, and the plan for change