TExES EC-6 ELAR
This flashcard set was created by Dr. Jerry Whitworth at Texas Woman's University to assist students in reviewing ELAR content for the EC-6 Generalist TExES exam.
Terms in this set (88)
relates to a student's ability to recognize and identify various sounds within a word.
two vowels, and occasionally three, that make one sound (rain, great, leaves)
two vowels that produce two sounds that glide into one another (blouse, towel)
Independent reading level
the level at which students are able to read on their own (reading for pleasure). This is also a good way to improve reading fluency.
Alphabetic Principal (sometimes called alphabet skill)
composed of two parts:
Alphabetic Understanding: Words are composed of letters that represent sounds.
Phonological Recoding: Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell words
Often used to determine if students have mastered the alphabetic principle. These are made-up words that student could not have memorized, but must apply the alphabetic principle to pronounce.
device to help students organize, connect and recall information presented during a lecture or reading or writing. There are many different types of graphic organizers and most of them provide a structure for helping students to organize information as they hear it (or read it). It provides a framework for them to see the connections and relationship among facts and information.
Stands for "What I KNOW, what I WANT to know, and what I LEARNED. It is is a type of graphic organizer to assist students in monitoring their reading comprehension
A type of graphic organizer that assists in understanding connections and relationships among various words that have similar concepts and meaning. Semantics is another word for vocabulary or word meaning.
A type of graphic organizer that consists of two overlapping circles. It's used to assist in comparing and contrasting things that have some elements in common.
Literally, it means "thinking about thinking." It is the process we use to plan, monitor and evaluate our approach to a task or activity. It is closely connected to graphic organizers.
include spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and paragraphing. They improve the readability of a paper or book. Without these things a piece of writing would be difficult to read.
include most of the same concepts as writing conventions, but are usually defined as being somewhat broader to also include such things as directionality, page numbers, table of contents, and titles.
a teaching technique that makes the writing process a meaningful part of the classroom curriculum. Students are introduced to the process of writing in the early elementary grades and write daily through varied activities.
The main components of the Writer's Workshop include a Mini-lesson, Status of the class, Writing & Conferencing, and Sharing & Author's Chair.
Guided reading lesson
Teacher provides feedback to students as they read aloud and practice reading strategies. It is the way most of us learned to read.
reading aloud in unison with a whole class or group of students. Choral reading helps build students' fluency, self-confidence, and motivation.
is a group or individual activity where learners read a text with a fluent reader, and then re-read the text alone until they can read it as fast as the fluent reader did.
The student reads aloud along with an accomplished reader. At a student signal, the helping reader stops reading, while the other student continues on. When the student commits a reading error, the helping reader resumes reading in tandem.
Sustained Silent Reading
Reading involves a time during the school day when every child and adult in a classroom, stops what they are doing and reads books of their own choosing silently for a specified period of time. The perceived benefit of this is that the more a student reads the more fluent he or she will become at reading. When students read silently they will need to read books on their independent reading level.
involves such things as drawing conclusions and predicting outcomes. It involves understanding and comprehending things in a reading selection that are only inferred and not stated specifically or directly. It is contrasted with literal comprehension which describes comprehending things that are literally or explicitly stated in the text or reading.
refers to background or providing a context for understanding something. This is sometimes presented in terms of a person's cultural experience or background.
involves splitting words into their individual parts; prefix, suffix, and root word to determine meaning.
a type of writing where the purpose is to inform, describe, explain, or define the author's subject to the reader.
writing that tells a story, whether true or fictional. Narrative writing is told from a defined point of view, often the author's, so there is feeling as well as specific and often sensory details provided to get the reader involved in
a biography, or life story, written by the person who is the subject of the biography.
tells a story that is set in the past. The setting is usually real and drawn from history, and often contains actual historical persons, but the main characters, and the plot, tend to be fictional.
he study of the rules that govern how words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. It relates to the correct arrangement of words in a sentence.
concerns the meanings of words, signs, symbols, and the phrases that represent them. More specifically, it is the study of meanings through the relationships of words and how words are used to convey meaning.
Word Family Patterns
groups of words that have a common feature or pattern, such as some combination of letters in them with similar sounds. For example bat, cat, hat and sat are a family of words with the "at" sound-letter combination.
a word whose spelling is such that it can not be pronounced correctly just by sounding it out according to the rules. The reader recognizes sight words from having memorized them or by drawing their meaning from context.
much like a book club, where members/participants read and discuss a book that everyone has read. Another approach that might help you with this question is to ask yourself if the other answers sound like they mean what the question is describing.
Consonant blend (also called consonant cluster) is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits.
Some linguists argue that the term can only be properly applied to those consonant clusters that occur within one syllable. Others contend that the concept is more useful when it includes consonant sequences across syllable boundaries.
The first stage of developmental spelling this is known as the"babbling"stageofspelling.Childrenuse letters for writing words but the letters are strung together randomly. The letters in precommunicative spelling do not correspond to sounds. Examples: OPSPS = eagle; RTAT = eighty.
Semiphonetic or Prephonemic Spelling
The second stage of developmental spelling children know that letters represent sounds.They perceive and represent reliable sounds with letters in a type of telegraphic writing. Spellings are often abbreviated representing initial and / or final sound. Examples: E = eagle; a = eighty.
The third stage of developmental spelling children spell words like they sound. The speller perceives and represents all of the phonemes in a word, though spellings may be unconventional. Examples: EGL = eagle; ATE = eighty.
The fourth stage of developmental spelling children think about how words appear visually;avisualmemoryof spelling patterns is apparent. Spellings exhibit conventions of English orthography like vowels in every syllable, e-marker and vowel digraph patterns, correctly spelled inflectional endings, and frequent English letter sequences. Examples: EGIL = eagle; EIGHTEE = eighty.
The fifth and final stage of developmental spelling in which spellers develop over years of word study and writing. Correct spelling can be categorized by instruction levels. For example, correct spelling for a corpus. . . words that can be spelled by the average fourth grader would be fourth grade level correct spelling. Place the word in this category if it is listed correctly.
Closed Word Sort
The teacher defines the process for categorizing the words. This requires students to engage in critical thinking as they examine sight vocabulary, corresponding concepts, or word structure.
Open Word Sort
Students determine how to categorize the words, thereby becoming involved in an active manipulation of words.
A Word Sort is a simple small group activity. Students list key words from a reading selection. (Alternatively, the teacher may provide a list of terms prior to the reading activity.) Students identify the meaning and properties of each word and then "sort" the list into collections of words with similar features.
Formative reading assessments and miscue analysis to determine what areas of reading are causing difficulties in comprehension.
Informal Reading Inventory
Series of increasingly difficult reading passages followed by comprehension checks/ questions. Formative assessments used to determine reading levels (independent, instructional, frustration).
1st stage of the writing process- gathering ideas on a topic.
2nd stage of the writing process- getting ideas down on paper in some order.
3rd stage of the writing process- refining/changing ideas or concepts in the text.
4th stage of the writing process- perfecting the grammar, mechanics, and spelling.
5th stage of the writing process- making the text ready to share with an audience.
Being able to automatically and immediately read the word without having to pause and sound it out.
Melody of speech.
The ability to read accurately, quickly, with good prosody, and effective comprehension.
Knowing parts of words and types of affixes (suffixes and prefixes) and being able to break words into parts.
Knowing isolated sounds, knowing that speech sounds are tied to letters, the ability to blend/manipulate these sounds.
Teacher reads aloud and students follow along and are asked to read certain words/phrases/sections of the story.
Setting, character, plot, style, point of view, mood/tone, theme of a story or other piece of literature.
The feeling the author wants you to get from the story.
Point of view
The perspective from which a story is told.
Letters or combinations of letters that make the same sound
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
Method for connecting oral language to written language.
The ability to tell the difference between one sound and another sound. Is very important in the development of phonemic awareness.
The word to which affixes are attached. Is also called a root word.
Large "child-friendly" volumes that help children learn concepts of print and enjoy positive reading experiences.
The ability to take separate sounds and blend them into a single word or syllable.
A technique in which words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria. The passage is presented to students, who insert words as they read to complete and construct meaning from the text. This procedure can be used as a diagnostic reading assessment technique.
The techniques that students can use to better understand reading texts. These techniques may include note taking, outlining, self-monitoring, rereading, summarizing , story mapping, and the use of learning logs.
Predicting and Questioning
A reading comprehension strategy where the teacher models for students how to make predictions and ask questions about a story prior to reading it. This can increase student engagement with the text and result in better comprehension.
The use of information surrounding an unknown word or group of words to identify the unknown word. Important information may include syntax, the meanings of the surrounding words, available pictures or photographs, or even typography.
Figuring out how to pronounce words by breaking the word down and identifying individual sounds within the word.
Directed listening thinking activity (DLTA)
Assesses and instructs students. Listening, predicting,and confirming one's predictions are emphasized. The DLTA is used to engage students in text which is above their independent and/or instructional reading level. It is used to 1). determine the purpose for reading, 2). extract, comprehend, and assimilate information, 3). examine reading material based on the purpose for reading, 4). suspend judgments, and 5). make decisions based on information gleaned from the reading material.
The awakening or beginning of a student's reading ability. These readers have well developed oral language skills, understand print concepts, and are phonemically aware.
The study of the origins and histories of words.
An instructional strategy that emphasizes group instruction . The instruction offered should include a great deal of teacher-student interactivity.
A tool employed by authors to communicate with a simile or metaphor rather than strictly literally. A word or phrase stands for the actual word or phrase.
The words that appear most often in printed materials. Because they appear so frequently, students must be able to identify them immediately so that their reading is slowed while they try to figure the words out. It is something used synonomously with sight words.
Teaching that uses nondirective suggestions and tacit implications in place of explicit direction or modeling. Implicit instruction occurs in instructional tasks that do not provide specific guidance on what is to be learned from the task. It may provide examples, uses, instances, illustrations, or visualizations of a knowledge components without a direct statement (or rule) that specifically directs the learner on what is to be learned (knowledge component).
Sounds, which are added to words to indicate tense, possession, number of comparison
The reading level at which a student recognizes and comprehends words well enough to avoid frustration but still requires some guidance or assistance from the teacher.
Literal Comprehension Skills
The first and most basic level of reading comprehension. Students at this level of comprehension can understand what the literal text, but cannot draw conclusions or effectively critique the text.
Categories that share a central theme. Examples include mysteries, science fiction, and romance.
The smallest unit of language that has meaning. It can be free standing, such as a word like "house," which can't be reduced any smaller and still have meaning. Or, a bound morpheme such as "ing" which changes the meaning of a wrod, but must be attached to another word itself in order to have meaning.
The study of word structure. It encompasses the derivation of words, the use of inflections, and the creation of compound words.
Is the part of the word or syllable that is followed by a vowel. For example, in the word "man," the onset is "m."
The study of spelling and standard spelling patterns.
Reading a text multiple times. This is a strategy that can increase reading fluency.
the part of a syllable which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it. In the word "sit," the "s" is the onset and "it" is the rime.
The ability to break a word into separate phonemes.
A teaching strategy to improve reading comprehension. The steps include Surveying, Questioning, Reading, Reciting, and Reviewing.
The breaking up of a word into one or more syllables.
A graphic presentation of major plot points and themes from a story. This learning tool improves reading comprehension and teaches students to be aware of story structure.
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