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115 terms

AEPA Language Arts

The best teachers test perpetration for the AEPA (elementary education) 01
STUDY
PLAY
context
The pictures or the parts of a sentence, paragraph, story, or passage that occur just before and after a specified word or passage that help to determine the exact meaning.
Cultural Pluralism
when small groups within a larger society maintain their uniquie cultural identity. Seeing value in all cultures.
Multiculturalism
Is the combining. Of. Many cultures to form a better society
assimilationism
belief that minority cultures should dissolve into a dominant culture
Pluralism
This suggests that a functional society should recognize and accept micro cultures as they are
Decodable words
Words that follow a regular pattern and have a predictable sound, such as the long final vowel sounds in so, he, and be.
Graphemes
Printed letter symbol used to represent a speech sound (phoneme). In English there are 26 graphemes (letters).
Phoneme
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Disadvantages to the phonics method
A major disadvantage of phonics is that visual learners may not read well by this method. A second disadvantage of the method is that rules do not hold true all the time.
Techniques for teaching
Student should have opportunities to practice the phonics rule and generalizations in context; instructors should make an effort to show the transfer of these to everyday materials an other subjects
Analytic phonics
PHONICS USED IN CONTEXT WITH ACTUAL MATERIALS; BEST PHONICS APPROACH
Synthetic phonics
LEARNING PHONICS AS ISOLATED RULES; LEAST EFFECTIVE PHONICS APPROACH
Structural analysis
A technique for breaking a word into its pronunciation units; the breaking down of a word into word parts such as prefixes, suffixes, roots, and combining forms. Ex: figuring out the word "returnable." If we had met "re" before and if we had met "able" before, we should know how to pronounce them. After we have isolated "turn," we may recognize it as a familiar word and know how to pronounce it.
Controlled vocabulary
Some text try to limit the new words a child meets, most children do not need this
Running record
An assessment which measures a child' fluency and skills during oral reading
Miscue analysis
A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes (miscues) they make when reading aloud.
Literal level of comprehension
the most basic level of comprehension, which involves reading the lines, or reading and understanding exactly what is on the page. When questioned about the text, all of the information is literally stated in the text. (ie factual question, sequence question, contrast question).
Interpretive level of comprehension
requires students to read between the lines, such as explain figurative language, define terms and answer interpretive and inferential questions (ie. contrast question, deriving meaning question, purpose question, cause and effect question)
Critical level of comprehension
Both literary and interpretive-reader evaluates and passes personal judgements-quality value-accuracy and truthfulness.
Creative level of comprehension
This is the highest level of comprehension. The student must read beyond the lioness, make judgements about the text.
Bloom's Taxonomy
There are six categories of cognitive objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.
Convergent questions
Questions that have a single correct answer
Divergent questions
Questions that have no single correct answer
Guided reading
instruction that supports and extend the reading process
Mnemonic devices
techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve information
Story mapping or webbing
These help students think about a reading passage and it's structure.
Poetry
A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination.
Prose
The literary genre that is written in ordinary language and most closely resembles everyday speech.
Basals
Text book with a collection of stories used to teach reading
Narrative
The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.
Traditional literature
stories that are passed down from one group to another in history. This includes folktales, legends, fables, fairy tales, tall tales, and myths from different cultures.
Modern literature
Modern thoughts, ideas, and concerns. tends to revolve around the themes of individualism, the randomness of life, mistrust of institutions (government, religion) and the disbelief in any absolute truths
Seven types of traditional literature
Parable, fable, fairy tales, folk tales, noodle-headntales, myths, and legends
Parable
a short narrative designed to teach a moral lesson in other words the story is didactic.
Fable
a short tale often with nonhuman characters from which a useful lesson may be drawn
Fairy tales
have magical characters and events; usually starts with-Once upon a time
Folk tales
stories or legends that are told over and over from one generation to another
Noodle-head stories
A type of folktale in which one or more characters are silly and the listener can outsmart them.
Myths
a traditional story that deals with the supernatural, ancestors, or heroes
Legends
widely-told stories about the past that may or may not be factual; every culture has its own legends - its familiar, traditional stories
Four classifications of modern literature
Novels, romance, confession, or Menippean satire
Novels
extended fictional works, usually of book length
A romance
Tend to demonstrate poetic justice, and have happy endings.
Confession
One character reveals thoughts and ideas, this character is usually a round character. The character is one whom the reader knows in detail.
Menippean satire
reader sees the world through the eyes of another - experiences the character's life
Fore shadowing
the use of clues or hints to suggest events that will occur later in the plot
Flashback
a transition (in literary or theatrical works or films) to an earlier event or scene that interrupts the normal chronological development of the story
Cliffhanger
a sudden ending to a chapter, which makes the reader want to read on
Sensationalism
The use of exciting or shocking stories or language at the expense of accuracy, in order to provoke public interest and excitement
Climax
Most exciting moment of the story; turning point
Denouement
the point at which the plot of a novel or drama is finally resolved; the outcome or solution of a complex sequence of events
Progressive plot
Requires one to read the entire book or story to find the answers to the question(s) in the plot.
Setting
The time and place of a story
Integral setting
is essential to the plot; it influences action, character or theme.
Types of characters
Round, flat, dynamic, static, protagonist, antagonist
Round character
this character is fully developed - the writer reveals good and bad traits as well as background
Flat character
a character who embodies a single quality and who does not develop in the course of a story
Dynamic character
A character who grows, learns, or changes as a result of the story's action
Static character
a character that does not change from the beginning of the story to the end
Protagonist
the main character, who must overcome obstacles and resolve the conflict
Antagonist
a person who is opposed to, struggles against, or competes with another; opponent; adversary.
Stock character
A stereotypical character; a type. The audience expects the character to have certain characteristics. Similar to conventional character and flat character.
Foil character
a character who is used as a contrast to another character; the contrast emphasizes the differences between the two characters, bringing out the distinctive qualities in each
Allegorical character
this type of character has a symbolic role beyond his/her function in the work.
Denotation
the literal meaning of a word
Connotation
refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition
Irony
the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning
Humor
anything that causes laughter or amusement
Figurative language
language employing one or more figures of speech (simile, metaphor, imagery, etc.)
Simile
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
Metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
Personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
Alliteration
use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
Consonance
the repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words
Assonance
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words
Onomatopoeia
words that sound like what they mean
Rhythm
the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements
Imagery
the ability to form mental images of things or events
Hyperbole
extravagant exaggeration
Allusion
a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
Word play
the skillful manipulation of words, often for humorous effect
Parody
a composition that imitates somebody's style in a humorous way
Diction
a writer's or speaker's choice of words
Symbolism
the practice of representing things by symbols, or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character.
The writing Process
Prewriting, composing or writing stage, Revising stage, editing/evaluation/post writing stage, rewriting stage
Prewriting
is the first stage of the writing process. It is when a writer gathers his/her thoughts before writing. This can be done by making a list, web, outline, etc.
Writing stage
Students may consult with one another and use various books and materials to contstruct their papers
Revising stage
PROCESS WRITING STAGE 3: POLISHING AND IMPROVING COMPOSITIONSL
Post writing stage
Students will read and correct own writing
Rewrite stage
PROCESS WRITING STAGE 5: AFTER RECEIVING BOTH PRAISE & CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM FROM PEERS AND TEACHER, STUDENTS DO FINAL REVISION
Expository writing
a type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform.
Persuasive writing
writing in which the author wants to convince readers to agree with the author's opinions. To accomplish this, the writer must first make the issues clear to the reader and then provide incidents and facts to support his or her opinion. Examples: campaign speeches, debates, etc.
Speculative writing
creating a fictional story based on a given situation, speculating about what could/did happen
-use personal experience
-think about audience
-use sensory language
Satire
witty language used to convey insults or scorn
Occasion in writing
Helps to determine the elements of the writing. The language should fit the occasion.
Purpose in writing
Helps to determine the format and the language of the writer.
Strategies to teach a variety of informational and literary text structures
Descriptive writing, ordered list, sequence, cause-and-effect, comparison, contrasts, chronological order, problem-and-solution
Clauses
groups of words containing a subject and predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence
Predicate
make the (grammatical) predicate in a proposition
Verbals
a form of a verb used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence; not the main verb
Correlative conjunctions
conjunctions used in pairs or groups (both...and, either....or, neither...nor)
Fragment sentence
a portion of a sentence, such as a DEPENDENT CLAUSE or a PHRASE, - punctuated as though it were a complete sentence, for example, the fragment beginning with such - as in the following: There are many animals that fly. Such as birds, bats, and bees.
Run-on sentences
A run-on sentence consists of two or more main clauses that are run together without proper punctuation
Comma splices
sentences incorrectly written as if they were one sentense; seperated by a comma
Verb present tense
Singular Plural
I have worked We have worked
You have worked You have worked
He, she, it has worked They have worked
Verb past tense
Singular Plural
I had worked We had worked
You had worked You had worked
He, she, it worked They had worked
Verb future tense
Singular Plural
I will work We will work
You will work You will work
He, she, it will work They will work
Verb present perfect tense
Singular Plural
I have worked We have worked
You have worked You have worked
He, she, it has worked They have worked
Verb past perfect tense
Singular Plural
I had worked We had worked
You had worked You had worked
He, she, it worked They had worked
Future perfect tense
a perfective tense used to describe action that will be completed in the future
Present participle
a participle expressing present action
Perfect participle
having been "verbed"
Subjunctive mood
uses 'if' and 'were', sets up a hypothetical situation
Antecedent
the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.
Superlative form of an adjective
compares three or more persons, places, things, or ideas