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The best teachers test perpetration for the AEPA (elementary education) 01


The pictures or the parts of a sentence, paragraph, story, or passage that occur just before and after a specified word or passage that help to determine the exact meaning.

Cultural Pluralism

when small groups within a larger society maintain their uniquie cultural identity. Seeing value in all cultures.


Is the combining. Of. Many cultures to form a better society


belief that minority cultures should dissolve into a dominant culture


This suggests that a functional society should recognize and accept micro cultures as they are

Decodable words

Words that follow a regular pattern and have a predictable sound, such as the long final vowel sounds in so, he, and be.


Printed letter symbol used to represent a speech sound (phoneme). In English there are 26 graphemes (letters).


in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

Disadvantages to the phonics method

A major disadvantage of phonics is that visual learners may not read well by this method. A second disadvantage of the method is that rules do not hold true all the time.

Techniques for teaching

Student should have opportunities to practice the phonics rule and generalizations in context; instructors should make an effort to show the transfer of these to everyday materials an other subjects

Analytic phonics


Synthetic phonics


Structural analysis

A technique for breaking a word into its pronunciation units; the breaking down of a word into word parts such as prefixes, suffixes, roots, and combining forms. Ex: figuring out the word "returnable." If we had met "re" before and if we had met "able" before, we should know how to pronounce them. After we have isolated "turn," we may recognize it as a familiar word and know how to pronounce it.

Controlled vocabulary

Some text try to limit the new words a child meets, most children do not need this

Running record

An assessment which measures a child' fluency and skills during oral reading

Miscue analysis

A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes (miscues) they make when reading aloud.

Literal level of comprehension

the most basic level of comprehension, which involves reading the lines, or reading and understanding exactly what is on the page. When questioned about the text, all of the information is literally stated in the text. (ie factual question, sequence question, contrast question).

Interpretive level of comprehension

requires students to read between the lines, such as explain figurative language, define terms and answer interpretive and inferential questions (ie. contrast question, deriving meaning question, purpose question, cause and effect question)

Critical level of comprehension

Both literary and interpretive-reader evaluates and passes personal judgements-quality value-accuracy and truthfulness.

Creative level of comprehension

This is the highest level of comprehension. The student must read beyond the lioness, make judgements about the text.

Bloom's Taxonomy

There are six categories of cognitive objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.

Convergent questions

Questions that have a single correct answer

Divergent questions

Questions that have no single correct answer

Guided reading

instruction that supports and extend the reading process

Mnemonic devices

techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve information

Story mapping or webbing

These help students think about a reading passage and it's structure.


A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination.


The literary genre that is written in ordinary language and most closely resembles everyday speech.


Text book with a collection of stories used to teach reading


The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

Traditional literature

stories that are passed down from one group to another in history. This includes folktales, legends, fables, fairy tales, tall tales, and myths from different cultures.

Modern literature

Modern thoughts, ideas, and concerns. tends to revolve around the themes of individualism, the randomness of life, mistrust of institutions (government, religion) and the disbelief in any absolute truths

Seven types of traditional literature

Parable, fable, fairy tales, folk tales, noodle-headntales, myths, and legends


a short narrative designed to teach a moral lesson in other words the story is didactic.


a short tale often with nonhuman characters from which a useful lesson may be drawn

Fairy tales

have magical characters and events; usually starts with-Once upon a time

Folk tales

stories or legends that are told over and over from one generation to another

Noodle-head stories

A type of folktale in which one or more characters are silly and the listener can outsmart them.


a traditional story that deals with the supernatural, ancestors, or heroes


widely-told stories about the past that may or may not be factual; every culture has its own legends - its familiar, traditional stories

Four classifications of modern literature

Novels, romance, confession, or Menippean satire


extended fictional works, usually of book length

A romance

Tend to demonstrate poetic justice, and have happy endings.


One character reveals thoughts and ideas, this character is usually a round character. The character is one whom the reader knows in detail.

Menippean satire

reader sees the world through the eyes of another - experiences the character's life

Fore shadowing

the use of clues or hints to suggest events that will occur later in the plot


a transition (in literary or theatrical works or films) to an earlier event or scene that interrupts the normal chronological development of the story


a sudden ending to a chapter, which makes the reader want to read on


The use of exciting or shocking stories or language at the expense of accuracy, in order to provoke public interest and excitement


Most exciting moment of the story; turning point


the point at which the plot of a novel or drama is finally resolved; the outcome or solution of a complex sequence of events

Progressive plot

Requires one to read the entire book or story to find the answers to the question(s) in the plot.


The time and place of a story

Integral setting

is essential to the plot; it influences action, character or theme.

Types of characters

Round, flat, dynamic, static, protagonist, antagonist

Round character

this character is fully developed - the writer reveals good and bad traits as well as background

Flat character

a character who embodies a single quality and who does not develop in the course of a story

Dynamic character

A character who grows, learns, or changes as a result of the story's action

Static character

a character that does not change from the beginning of the story to the end


the main character, who must overcome obstacles and resolve the conflict


a person who is opposed to, struggles against, or competes with another; opponent; adversary.

Stock character

A stereotypical character; a type. The audience expects the character to have certain characteristics. Similar to conventional character and flat character.

Foil character

a character who is used as a contrast to another character; the contrast emphasizes the differences between the two characters, bringing out the distinctive qualities in each

Allegorical character

this type of character has a symbolic role beyond his/her function in the work.


the literal meaning of a word


refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition


the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning


anything that causes laughter or amusement

Figurative language

language employing one or more figures of speech (simile, metaphor, imagery, etc.)


a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')


a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity


A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes


use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse


the repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words


the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words


words that sound like what they mean


the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements


the ability to form mental images of things or events


extravagant exaggeration


a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art

Word play

the skillful manipulation of words, often for humorous effect


a composition that imitates somebody's style in a humorous way


a writer's or speaker's choice of words


the practice of representing things by symbols, or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character.

The writing Process

Prewriting, composing or writing stage, Revising stage, editing/evaluation/post writing stage, rewriting stage


is the first stage of the writing process. It is when a writer gathers his/her thoughts before writing. This can be done by making a list, web, outline, etc.

Writing stage

Students may consult with one another and use various books and materials to contstruct their papers

Revising stage


Post writing stage

Students will read and correct own writing

Rewrite stage


Expository writing

a type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform.

Persuasive writing

writing in which the author wants to convince readers to agree with the author's opinions. To accomplish this, the writer must first make the issues clear to the reader and then provide incidents and facts to support his or her opinion. Examples: campaign speeches, debates, etc.

Speculative writing

creating a fictional story based on a given situation, speculating about what could/did happen
-use personal experience
-think about audience
-use sensory language


witty language used to convey insults or scorn

Occasion in writing

Helps to determine the elements of the writing. The language should fit the occasion.

Purpose in writing

Helps to determine the format and the language of the writer.

Strategies to teach a variety of informational and literary text structures

Descriptive writing, ordered list, sequence, cause-and-effect, comparison, contrasts, chronological order, problem-and-solution


groups of words containing a subject and predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence


make the (grammatical) predicate in a proposition


a form of a verb used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence; not the main verb

Correlative conjunctions

conjunctions used in pairs or groups (both...and, either....or, neither...nor)

Fragment sentence

a portion of a sentence, such as a DEPENDENT CLAUSE or a PHRASE, - punctuated as though it were a complete sentence, for example, the fragment beginning with such - as in the following: There are many animals that fly. Such as birds, bats, and bees.

Run-on sentences

A run-on sentence consists of two or more main clauses that are run together without proper punctuation

Comma splices

sentences incorrectly written as if they were one sentense; seperated by a comma

Verb present tense

Singular Plural
I have worked We have worked
You have worked You have worked
He, she, it has worked They have worked

Verb past tense

Singular Plural
I had worked We had worked
You had worked You had worked
He, she, it worked They had worked

Verb future tense

Singular Plural
I will work We will work
You will work You will work
He, she, it will work They will work

Verb present perfect tense

Singular Plural
I have worked We have worked
You have worked You have worked
He, she, it has worked They have worked

Verb past perfect tense

Singular Plural
I had worked We had worked
You had worked You had worked
He, she, it worked They had worked

Future perfect tense

a perfective tense used to describe action that will be completed in the future

Present participle

a participle expressing present action

Perfect participle

having been "verbed"

Subjunctive mood

uses 'if' and 'were', sets up a hypothetical situation


the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.

Superlative form of an adjective

compares three or more persons, places, things, or ideas

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