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Biology Exam 3
Terms in this set (72)
Transforms light energy into chemical energy, source of most of world's organic material, and only source of oxygen in atmosphere
Equation for photosynthesis
CO2+H2O➡️ O2 + C6H12O6
Factors affecting photo.
Light intensity(energy input, CO2 quantity, H2O supply, temperature
Makes its own food
What is the site of photosynthesis?
Which organ is responsible for absorbing light and carrying on photo?
What type of membrane does a chloroplast have?
Double membrane (they have their own DNA)
Fluid filled space inside the inner membrane of chloroplast
What is the site of glucose formation from CO2?
Stacks of membranous sacs that contain chlorophyll
What is the site of the transformation of light energy into chemical energy (ATP & NADPH)
Stacks of thylakoids
What are the two stages of photo?
Light dependent and light independent(dark)
What is the site of the light reaction?
Unit of light energy
What is the site of the dark reaction?
What are the inputs of the dark reaction?
CO2 (direct from atmosphere) and ATP & NADPH (from light reaction)
What are the outputs of the light independent reaction?
G3P (used to synthesize glucose or other organic molecules)
"Covered seeds" (flowering plants)
What are the two main groups of angiosperms?
Monocot and dicot
The first leaf to emerge from the seed (the embryonic seed leaf)
5 characteristics of monocot
One cotyledon, parallel pattern of leaf veins, scattered arrangement of vascular bundles in stem, ring patterned arrangement in vascular bundles in root, and floral parts in multiples of 3
5 characteristics of dicot
2 cotyledons, net/branched pattern of leaf veins, ring patterned arrangement of vascular bundles in stem, solid core in root, and floral parts in multiples of 4 or 5
The below-ground structure(is at least equal to size of above-ground structure)
4 functions of root system
Anchors plant in soil, absorbs minerals and water from the soil, stores food, and transports minerals and water to the stem
An extension of epidermal cells that is the only site for the absorption of water & minerals
The above-ground structure
5 functions of the stem
Holds leaves, flowers, and fruits in best position to carry out their functions, transports water & minerals from root to leaves, moves food(glucose) from the leaves to all parts of the plant, storage of food & water, and green ones carry out photosynthesis
The loss of water vapor from the internal parts of the leaf
4 functions of leaves
Site of transpiration, site of photosynthesis, site of gas exchange(O2&CO2), and storage of food
The reproductive structure of the plant (found only in angiosperms). All floral structures are modified leaves
Complex plant tissue
Composed of more than 1 cell type
Xylem vascular tissues function
Carries water & minerals in upward direction only
Phloem vascular tissues function
Carry food in upward and downward direction to wherever it is needed
An area of unspecialized cells that divide and generate new cells & tissues, resulting in indeterminate growth
Meristems found at the tips of the roots and shoots that are responsible for growth in length
Results in increase of diameter
Large cells produced when an abundance of water is available. Large in diameter, light in color
Small cells produced when water is scarce. Small in diameter, dark in color
Outermost whorl, protects the floral bud and is usually green in color
Collective term for all the sepals
Sepals that are same color as petals (AKA petaloid sepals)
second outermost whorl, attracts sexual go-betweens or pollinators, commonly brightly colored
All the petals
All the sepals and petals
Male reproductive structure, produces pollen
A sac that produces pollen
Each grain contains 2 non-motile sperm
Holds anther up, exposing it to pollination
Female reproductive system, produces eggs(ovules)
Sticky surface that collects pollen grains, produces a hormone that causes the pollen to germinate
Connects the stigma with the ovary, raises the stigma from the base of the flower to expose to pollination
Contains ovule or eggs (fruit)
The stem of the flower or inflorescence (a bunch of flowers on one stock)
Stem of a solitary flower or the main stem of an inflorescence
The female part of the plant with 8 haploid nuclei
Function unknown (in embryo sac)
Polar nuclei (2)
Fuse with 1 sperm to form endoderm (in embryo sac)
Food storage tissue for the embryo plant
Function unknown (in embryo sac)
Combines with 2nd sperm to form the embryo
2 layers of protective cells surrounding the embryo sac - when it matures it becomes the testa or seed coat
Small hole in integuments allowing the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac
Pollen grains move from the anther to the stigma
Pollination, sugars and hormones of the stigma stimulate pollen germination, pollen tube digests down through the stigmas, style, and then the ovary and delivers the 2 sperm nuclei in to embryo sac
One sperm nucleus unites with egg to form embryo and the other with polar bodies to form endosperm
What happens first pollination or fertilization?
Pollen from anther of one flower lands on the stigma of another plant
Pollen from the anther of a flower lands on the stigma of the same plant
Asexual reproduction (vegetative reproduction)
Part of the plant (leaf, stem, root) reorganizes tissue to start growing a new plant