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Higher Biology: Unit 1
Terms in this set (93)
Deoxyribose end of DNA strand to which nucleotides can be added.
Phosphate end of DNA strand to which nucleotides cannot be added.
The relationship between two strands of DNA with their sugar-phosphate backbones running in opposite directions.
Two-stranded molecule of DNA wound into a spiral.
Sugar present in DNA.
Basic unit of nucleic acids, composed of sugar, phosphate and base.
Advanced organism such as a plant or animal.
Simple organism such as a bacterium.
Small ring of DNA present in prokaryotes and some yeasts.
Increase in number of copies of a DNA fragment by PCR.
The relationship between base pairs, able to join by hydrogen bonding.
Production of two identical DNA molecules from one original, where each new copy contains one 'parental' strand and one newly synthesised strand.
Enzyme required to promote DNA replication.
Enzyme that joins replicated DNA fragments into a complete strand.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
Laboratory technique used to create many copies of a piece of DNA.
Short sequence of nucleotides needed by DNA polymerase to begin replication of DNA.
Technique used to separate components of a mixture which differ in their degree of solubility in a solvent.
Technique used to separate electrically charged molecules by subjecting them to an electric current which forces them to move through a gel.
Weak chemical link between certain amino acids in a polypeptide chain, which causes the chain to coil or fold.
Strong chemical bond linking amino acids in a polypeptide.
Physical and chemical state of a cell or organism produced as a result of gene expression in combination with its environment.
Chain-like molecule composed of several amino acids.
Molecule composed of one or more polypeptides folded or coiled into a specific shape.
Triplet of bases on a tRNA molecule, complementary to a mRNA codon, and corresponds to a particular amino acid.
Region on a tRNA molecule to which a specific amino acid becomes temporarily fixed.
Unit of genetic information consisting of a triplet of bases; mRNA is made up of a series of codons.
Sugar present in RNA.
Coding region of a gene or primary transcript of mRNA.
Non-coding region of a gene or primary transcript of mRNA.
Type of nucleic acid which carries a copy of the DNA code from the nucleus to a ribosome.
Type of nucleic acid which carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome, and attaches it to the growing polypeptide chain.
Molecular language whereby the sequence of bases along a DNA strand represents a sequence of codewords.
Alteration of protein structure by cutting and combining its polypeptides, or adding phosphate or carbohydrate groups.
mRNA strand formed as the complement of a section of DNA template strand.
Sub-cellular structure made of rRNA and protein which brings tRNA into contact with mRNA in order to facilitate protein synthesis.
Enzyme responsible for transcription.
Joining of exons within a primary transcript of mRNA following the removal of introns.
Synthesis of a complementary mRNA molecule from a section of DNA.
Synthesis of protein as a sequence of amino acids (polypeptide) under the direction of mRNA.
Base present in RNA that is complementary to adenine.
Common source of tissue (adult) stem cells in humans.
Process of cell specialisation involving the selective switching on / off of certain genes.
embryonic stem cell
Unspecialised cell of early embryo (blastocyst) capable of differentiating into all cell types found in the human body.
Group of unspecialised plant cells capable of dividing repeatedly throughout the life of the plant.
Differentiated cell that only expresses genes for proteins specific to that cell type.
tissue (adult) stem cell
Stem cell capable of differentiating into a limited range of cell types (i.e. narrower differentiation potential).
Type of artificial propagation used to produce a clone of a desirable plant.
Gene mutation involving the loss of one nucleotide from the DNA sequence, or loss of a segment of chromosome consisting of one or more genes.
Sequence of DNA bases that codes for a protein.
Gene mutation involving the addition of an extra nucleotide to the DNA sequence.
Individual whose genotype expresses a mutation.
General term for a random change in an organism's genome.
Change affecting nucleotide(s) at a site where introns are normally removed from a primary mRNA transcript.
An organism's entire genetic information encoded in the DNA of a complete set of its chromosomes.
A change in one of the base pairs in the DNA sequence of a single gene.
Gene mutation involving the exchange of one nucleotide for another in the DNA sequence.
Form of mutation involving one or more extra sets of chromosomes being added to a species' chromosome complement.
Reversal of the gene order of a segment of chromosome as a result of two breaks in the same chromosome.
Transfer of a segment of genes from one chromosome to another non-matching chromosome.
Protective region of repeated DNA sequences found at the end of a chromosome.
Doubling up of part of a chromosome involving several genes.
Process of gradual change in a population of organisms over successive generations resulting from genomic variations.
chromosome structure mutation
General term for a change that alters the number or sequence of genes in a chromosome.
Transfer of genetic material 'sideways' between contemporary members of a population.
Transfer of genetic sequences from one generation 'down' to the next by sexual or asexual reproduction.
Form of speciation where gene flow between populations of a species is prevented by a geographical barrier.
Random increase or decrease in the frequency of genetic sequences, particularly in small populations, that occur due to sampling error.
Form of genetic drift involving the isolation of a splinter group that possesses gene frequencies unrepresentative of the original population's gene pool.
Non-random increase in frequency of DNA sequences that increases the reproductive success of a species.
Non-random increase in frequency of DNA sequences which confer an advantage and increase the chance of survival.
Application of sequencing and computational procedures to analyse the genomes of organisms.
Application of statistics and computer science to analyse and compare genetic sequence data.
Geographical, ecological or behavioural barrier that prevents genetic exchange between populations of a species.
Benefit gained by mutant organisms in an environment that suits them but not other members of the population.
Type of mutation whose genetic sequence differs from the original but which still codes for the functional protein.
Generation of new biological species by evolution as a result of isolation, mutation and selection.
Branching diagram showing evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms based on their genomic differences.
Form of speciation where gene flow between populations of a species is prevented by a behavioural or ecological barrier.
Group of organisms that produce fertile offspring and share the same chromosome complement.
single nucleotide polymorphism
A variation in DNA sequence that affects a single base pair in a DNA chain.
Enzyme that recognises a specific sequence of nucleotides on a DNA strand and cuts the DNA at that site.
Determining the order of bases on DNA fragments and the order of fragments in a genome.
Study of genomes related to personalised medicine.
Study of evolutionary relatedness among different groups of organisms.
The entire genetic information of an organism encoded in the DNA of a complete set of its chromosomes.
Form of selection that results in a population being split into two distinct groups, each with its own mean value for a trait.
Form of selection that results in a progressive shift in a population's mean value for a trait.
Form of selection that leads to a reduction in genetic diversity without a change in a population's mean value for a trait.
Use of a molecule that has accumulated mutations over time to construct an evolutionary timescale for groups possessing the molecule.
Species important for research because it possesses genes equivalent to human genes responsible for inherited disorders.
Term used to describe DNA sequences found to be very similar in the genomes of the two organisms being compared.
Separation of two groups in a phylogeny when their genomes acquire mutations and become different from one another.
Large group of living organisms such as bacteria, archaea or eukaryotes.
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