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LACS- Test 2
Terms in this set (47)
What two key events in 2001 changed the way that Latin Americans viewed anti-Americanism?
1) The attacks of September 11th
2) Argentina's economic meltdown
With the US absorbed in War on Terror, countries like Argentina were left alone to recover from poorly managed reforms; staggered under huge debt, growing unemployment, and unequal distribution of income
In what situation did most Latin American nations find themselves after a decade-long experiment with neoliberal prescriptions?
Most countries did not see success after Neoliberalism
new anti-Americanism is not based so much on ideological divisions (like during the cold war) but on
political as well as economical and cultural influences (food, music, art clothing)
**today's anti-Americanism is based on:
2)people felt that we mishandled terrorism and did not support the war
3) US farmers are provided with subsidies unlike in Mexico etc
4) the perception of the US as an empire
What is the Union of South American Nations?
intergovernmental regional organization comprising 12 South American countries
a goal of forming a South American Community with the intention to model the new community after the European Union
attitude about US consumer goods changing throughout the last decade?
US consumer goods are on the wane in Latin America
A majority of Latin Americans believe that US brands are exploiting people and the environment
young people are more likely to have negative attitudes toward US brands
the desirability of US products was until recently never questioned because there is no longer an enthuiastic embrace of leadership by the United States
Dictator of Dominican Republic
Approx number of lives lost: 2,000 to hurricane, 20,000 to attack because of Haiti refuge
Rise to power: he made himself the only person of the ballet
Maintain in power: remained in power for 31 years "puppet successors," eliminated anyone who opposed him
US relationship: trained by US marines during American Occupation, he had a "peaceful relationship" but it soured after he began "blatently murdering people," most likely that the CIA had to do with assassinations
Dictator of Nicaragua
Anastasio Somoza (and Sons)
Approx number of lives lost: 50,000 to the Nicaraguan revolution
Rise to power: head of the National Guard and used that power to ensure his votes; gave power to sons
Maintain in power: he had someone else run that he could control "behind the scenes" when people began to oppose him
US relationship: known for relationship with Roosevelt, US wanted to separate from relations with the son because of his intense brutality
Dictator of Grenada
Maurice Bishop (Grenadian Politician and Revolutionary)
Approx number of lives lost: 45 killed and 358 were wounded
Rise to power: seized power after he staged a military coup *that people were supportive of
Maintain in power: no elections were held during his rule, all other political parties (excluding the New Jewel movement) were banned
US relationship: not a very good relationship- he wanted to build an international airport and Reagan didn't monetarily support it, US was originally hands off but eventually invaded Grenada to have Bishop assassinated
Dictator of Panama
Manuel Noriega (Military Dictatorship from 1968-1981)
Approx number of lives lost: 100's of civilians due to Panama Invasion (as well as 23 US soldiers)
Rise to power: he was a career soldier
Maintain in power: he would hold elections but declare them unfair and would void them, he killed opposing people, and had "puppet presidents"
US relationship: trained by US forces at Fort Bragg; worked heavily alongside the CIA during his rule
Oligarchy of El Salvador
group of several hundred families known as "14 families" who founded and controlled the Salvadoran coffee industry beginning in 1880
Approx number of lives lost: military killed 30,000 indian peasants who were protesting, additional 200-1,500 citizens in 1977 who were trying to protest, security forces (National Guard, National Police) were estimated to have killed 11,895 people
Rise to power: coffee/agricultural exporter
Maintain in power: elite families that essentially ran the government and military; ARENA party
Dictator of Haiti
Jean Bertrand Aristide
Approx number of lives lost: 4,000 deaths plus 53+ disappearances
Rise to power: 1st democratically elected president in Haiti (in 1991) after Haiti's military force escalated out of control
Maintain in power: became more radical after he was elected
US relationship: the US invaded after he was exiled demanding that he be put back in power
Dictator of Venezuela
Pedro Carmona (interim President of Venezuela)
Approx number of lives lost:
Rise to power: told by the military that he would be the president so the military staged a coup and then changed the leader of Venezuela
Maintain in power: technically in office for less than 24 hours
US relationship: the US was concerned of plans to overthrow the government
common ways that dictators came to power?
secret police; appointed head of National Guard; constantly left people waiting; usually military coup
common tactic used to maintain in power?
secret police and torture; killing those who were opposed; good relationship with the US; "puppet" leaders
common reasons for US interventions?
to protect US citizens; fear of communism; maintaining poilitical stability; the idea of restoring democracy, protecting the US interests, and removing a problematic leader
common outcomes of these interventions?
US rebuilt infrastructure, education (schools); national army was left in place; anti-american sentiment; restore stability and democracy
connection between dictatorship and intervention?
US intervenes to prevent communism once a dictator has become too brutal; we intervened leaving a National army with the intent of restoring political corruption but the leader rises up and becomes brutal/dictator
One Day of Life - main characters
Rubenia --> Lupe's mother
Lupe (Guadalupe) --> main character/narrator
José (Chepe) --> Lupe's husband
María Pía --> L&J daughter
Helio --> L&J son-in-law (married to María Pía)
Justino --> L&J son
Aldofina --> L&J granddaughter (María Pía's daughter)
"I agree that we should sacrifice and send the little ones to school, so they won't be ignorant and so no one will cheat them."
Lupe's generation (peasants) cannot read and write and so they don't know if they are being cheated by the (authorities); an opportunity for education is an opportunity to move out of the bottom of the social hierarchy as a peasant
"And when they changed, we also began to change. It was nicer that way. Knowing that something called rights existed. The right to healthcare, to food and to schooling for our children. If it hadn't been for the priests, we wouldn't have found out about those things that are in our interest... What we must always insist on is the rights of the poor... It's not a matter of begging, but of claiming our rights, because the government has said that the Bank is supposed to make loans, so one can buy seeds and fertilizer."
they refers to the priests --> the priests that came to El Salvador began to change in siding more toward the (peasants) and taught them that they were humans and rights too
the peasants had no sense that the government (authorities) was responsible for and accountable for them
"What I still don't understand is why the guardsmen side with the rich. Ticha's son, for example, is a guardsmen, and we all know the misery she undergoes to feed herself and the grandchildren..."
(peasants) they're desperate and they feel betrayed by people who side with the guardsmen and military (authority); they're at a point where they are so desperate that they can only watch out for themselves; joining the military meant you had food, clothes, shoes, and a gun to protect yourself
"The problem has nothing to do with envy but with necessity. They forget that without our hands there's no sowing, no weeding, no harvesting, no clearing of the fields. Machetes don't move by themselves."
They (peasants) don't understand why the landowners (authorities) don't value their work because they weren't ignorant that their work was important
"One must be ready to defend the country against its enemies even at the expense of our own brothers. And, though it's unnecessary to say so, even at the expense of our mother... 'Who is the worst enemy of democracy?' And we all respond 'The people!' ...They call us the Special Forces... Only by being tough can we save endangered democracy."
even the young kids are indoctrinated into learning about democracy and how to defend against communism
Lupe and her family (peasants) just want their work to be valued-- they don't really care about the democracy, they're just standing up for themselves
"That is, this uniform that you see me wearing so proudly isn't so easy to wear; it's not for everyone. And then they go around blackening out reputation, saying that we have it easy, that all we do is prosecute people. What you don't know you shouldn't say shit about."
He is saying that they really don't have it that easy, and that you shouldn't judge their situation until you've been in it--until you have to resort to fighting because it is the only way you get food and clothing. They're stuck in this endless cycle of poverty.
"Since we are no longer silent and we demand our rights, life has become impossible for men in these parts. ...But we have to organize ourselves. And for that reason we become strong and crease to be afraid. ...The only thing we don't have is rights. And as we have began to arrive at this awareness, this place filled up with authorities wishing to impose order, omnipotent with their automatics as they call them."
They (peasants) are saying that they must stand up (to the authorities) for their rights because now that they know that they have them, they can't go back to how things used to be. The authorities don't like they're protesting though, because the authorities liked things the way they used to be, and aren't willing to acknowledge that the peasants have rights or give them to them
"We live in poverty. We live with hunger and still they would like to exterminate us; they don't want us to exist maybe. Well, who is going to pick the cotton? ...Who is going to clear the fields so they can sow with ease? Who is going to work the big plantations they own?
The (peasants) are acknowledging that their work is just as valuable as the (authorities'), because the authorities need to live off of the work that the peasants do
"I have not failed you, José. I understand that you were saying goodbye when you opened your eye, and besides greeting me, that you were proud of me."
Lupe denies knowing José because if they (the authorities) knew that José was affiliated with them, then they would hurt/kill them too, so at least her family would be safe. José had asked her to, and it was better that if he would die anyway, she could at least be safe.
Archbishop Oscar Romero
he was named the head of the Salvadoran church, and was assassinated by an anti-communist political assassin in the middle of mass
he decided that anticommunism was an unholy cause and stood up for the peasants in El Salvador, and was brutally killed for his views
the religious response to the profound poverty of the indigenous people of El Salvador taken up by the Salvadoran church
"preferential option for the poor"
small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution; "ruled by many"
Oligarchy of El Salvador --> they owned all the land and would give the peasants the worst share that was hardest to work on
typically peasants who decided to stand up for what they believed in; small independent group taking part in fighting against larger regular forces.
peasants were hearded into new "model" villages (aka rural concentration camps)
move by US strategists to prevent peasants from being influenced by the guerrillas and fighting against the US/authorities
La Matanza (the slaughter of 1932)
peasant-led rebellion (Salvadoran communist party) that was savagely supressed by the government and Salvadoran army - massacre because around 30,000 people were killed
Augustine Farabundo Martí
FMLN (Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front)
political party named after Farabundo Martí who was a communist organizer that had served with Sandino against US forces
FMLN members were fighting for communism against the military's anticommunism
guerrillas organized themselves under this name
tiny village in El Salvador in which hundreds of men, women, and children were suspected of aiding the guerrillas (out of false intelligence)
turns out, most of them were US-oriented/US-supportive evangelical protestants and favored the government
armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror
1992 Peace Treaty
the cold war was over
The Nicaraguan election of 1990 ended the Sandinista Revolution and an FMLN victory seemed further away than ever
*the country was sick of fighting, so they signed a peace treaty; there wasn't a clear winner
Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion between 1927 and 1933 against the U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua
FSLN named after him
Anastasio Somoza/Somoza Dictatorship
Somoza dynasty (1938-1979)
Somoza family owned about a third of the nation's economy--cotton gins, sugar refineries, national airline
they had a monopoly on everything and wanted to modernize the economy
Nicaraguan journalist and publisher for a conservative newspaper that opposed Somoza
was assassinated at Somoza's request and this led to every party opposing Somoza (uniting Nicaraguans) except for the National Guard
FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front) / Sandinistas
created in 1961 to get rid of Somoza and reset the social deck; inspired by Castro's revolution in Cuba 2 years earlier
transitioned into 3-part government that left room for opposition parties
The Sandinistas held elections in 1984
Daniel Ortega (he was a guerrilla leader) won with 67% of the popular vote, but he faced debt and an economy that was in shambles
"counterrevolutionaries;" US-backed & right-wing militia group in opposition of the left-wing socialist Sandinistas; proxy force mostly trained by US in Honduras
Could wreak havoc on the Sandinistas; the Sandinistas had to stop repairing the economy and divert their funds to the Contra War until finally Ortega sat down with the Contras to negotiate
US Role in Central America
won the elections of 1990; she was a center candidate that was convinced into running
known for ending the Contra War and bringing peace to the country
Differences in Nicaragua and Cuban Revolution?
Nicaragua chose to mix capitalist economies with socialization economies
Sandinista battles took place in the countryside as well as the cities--> there was a lot to repair
There was more celebration as well as opportunity to opposition
Nicaraguan revolution improved health care, sanitation, education
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