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Chapter 6 II Workers of the Nation Unite
Key terms, people, organizations, and ideas regarding the organization of labor in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Terms in this set (26)
National Labor Union (NLU)
First large scale labor organization; formed by William H. Sylvis, focused on linking existing unions, persuades government to accept 8hr work days, formed the labor reform party, preferred arbitration rather than strikes
Knights of Labor
a labor union founded in 1869, included all workers of any trade, skilled or unskilled, its slogan was, "an injury to one is the concern of all"
Labor leader, Founded the Knights of Labor
led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Labor organization created 1886 led by Samuel Gompers; an alliance of skilled workers in craft unions, focused on issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions; relied on collective bargaining or strikes
settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider
Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
a group's refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
American Railway Union (ARU)
the first major industrial union; allowed for skilled and unskilled labor; Arose after the panic of 1893; founded by Eugene Debs
Labor that requires specialized skills and education such as carpenters, weavers, and blacksmiths; sometimes called artisans or craftsmen
Labor that requires no specialized skills, education, or training - more jobs in the U.S. became unskilled with the perfection of mass production via assembly lines
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
German philosopher who developed socialism in response to the wealth inequalities of the Industrial Revolution; , saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production (capitalists); preached the inevitability of social revolution
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
The most radical union in U.S. history, it was dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism. It was formed in Chicago in 1905; union of radicals and socialists; nicknamed the "wobblies"
someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike
Mary Harris "Mother" Jones
She was a labor activist that took up the plight of women in the work world in late 1800's.
Great Strike of 1877
A cut in wages during an economic depression following the Panic of 1873 which resulted in a strike involving 80,000 workers in 11 states and affected 2/3 of the US; President Hayes forced it to end with military force
The Haymarket Affair
3,000 gather at Chicago's Haymarket Square in 1886 to protest police brutality
• bomb thrown by unknown person; many die; 8 charged with inciting riot, convicted; hung
• Public opinion turns against labor movement
1892 strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers
Pinkerton Detective Agency
Private security force that specialized in anti-union activities; businesses' tool to break apart strikes
The Pullman Strike
1894 strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company by the American Railway Union under Eugene V. Debs. Pullman cut wages by 25% and refused to lower rent following Panic of 1893. The strike was crushed by a court injunction and federal troops.
the first female organizer of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.
International Ladies Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU)
more than 20,000 members of this union walked off their jobs in a strike in 1910 demanding safer working condition, better pay and shorter hours
Uprising of 20,000
Labor strike involving primarily Jewish women working in New York shirtwaist factories that began in November 1909 and ended with the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in March 1911.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
(1911) 146 women killed while locked into the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions)
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