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Higher Biology: Unit 2
Terms in this set (136)
Steps in a metabolic pathway that allow the regular steps to be bypassed.
Type of metabolic pathway that brings about the biosynthesis of complex molecules and requires energy.
Type of protein molecule that actively pumps specific ions into and/or out of a cell.
Type of metabolic pathway that brings about the breakdown of complex molecules and releases energy.
Type of protein molecule in cell membrane containing a pore through which specific substances are able to diffuse.
Membrane-bound organelle containing digestive enzymes.
Sum of all the biochemical reactions occurring within a living organism.
Step in a metabolic pathway that can operate in both a forward and backward direction.
Energy needed to break the chemical bonds in the reactants in a chemical reaction.
Degree of chemical attraction between reactant molecules.
Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction and remains unaltered by the reaction.
Substance formed as a result of an enzyme acting on a substrate.
Protein made by living cells that acts as a biological catalyst.
State of close molecular contact resulting from change in shape of an enzyme's active site to accommodate its substrate.
Way in which molecules of two reactants are held together as determined by the shape of the enzyme's active site.
Amount of chemical change that occurs per unit of time.
Complementary relationship of a molecular structure allowing an enzyme to combine with one type of substrate only.
Substance upon which an enzyme acts, resulting in the formation of an end product.
State of reactant molecules that have absorbed enough energy to break their bonds and allow the reaction to occur.
Process by which an operator gene becomes free and an operon is able to code for an enzyme.
Molecule which prevents a repressor molecule from combining with an operator gene.
Combination of an operator gene and one or more structural genes.
Region of DNA which codes for a repressor molecule.
Molecule coded for by a regulator gene which can combine with an operator gene.
Region of DNA which codes for a functional protein such as an enzyme.
Alteration of a cell's genotype using a genetically modified plasmid.
Regulatory molecule that becomes attached to an enzyme molecule holding it in its active form.
Non-active location on an enzyme molecule to which an inhibitor or an activator may become attached.
Type of inhibitor with a molecular structure similar to an enzyme's substrate enabling it to become attached to the enzyme's active site.
Process by which the build-up of a metabolite prevents the activity of an enzyme controlling an earlier stage.
Regulatory molecule that halts or decreases the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction.
Type of inhibitor that becomes attached to a non-active site on an enzyme and changes the enzyme's molecular shape.
Substance that acts on an enzyme as an activator or an inhibitor.
Chemical substance (often from outside the cell) which exerts control over a metabolic pathway within the cell.
Low energy molecule composed of adenosine and two phosphate groups.
Energy-consuming metabolic process, often in the form of a biosynthetic pathway.
High energy molecule composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups.
Enzyme that catalysed the synthesis of ATP.
General name for a metabolic process involving the breakdown of complex molecules, normally releasing energy.
Series of metabolic pathways which release energy from food allowing ATP to be regenerated.
Enzyme that removes hydrogen ions and high energy electrons from the respiratory substrate.
Role played by ATP between energy-releasing and energy-consuming reactions.
Respiratory substrate that provides energy for the regeneration of ATP.
Enzyme-controlled process by which a phosphate group is added to a molecule often making it more reactive.
Inorganic phosphate group needed to make ATP from ADP.
acetal coenzyme A
Compound formed from pyruvate and coenzyme A in the presence of oxygen.
Gaseous product of aerobic respiration (and fermentation in plants).
Metabolite formed from oxaloacetate and an acetyl group.
citric acid cycle
Circular metabolic pathway of stages controlled by enzymes that remove hydrogen ions from the respiratory substrate.
electron transport chain
Group of protein molecules in a mitochondrial membrane which make energy available to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane.
First phase of glycolysis which requires ATP.
Second phase of glycolysis which generates ATP.
Product of fermentation in plant cells.
Form of cellular respiration involving partial breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen.
glycogen & starch
Complex carbohydrates which can be broken down to glucose for use as the respiratory substrate.
Metabolic pathway which breaks down glucose into private.
inner mitochondrial membrane
Location of electron transport chains in cells.
lactate / lactic acid
Product of fermentation in animal cells.
NAD & FAD
Co-enzyme molecules that act as hydrogen acceptors during respiration.
Metabolite in the citric acid cycle which combines with an acetyl group to form citrate.
The final hydrogen acceptor which combines with hydrogen ions (and electrons) to form water.
Compound formed when glucose undergoes glycolysis.
Final product of aerobic respiration when oxygen combines with hydrogen.
Heart chamber which receives blood from the capillary beds.
Region of the body containing a network of tiny blood vessels which offer resistance to the flow of blood.
complete circulatory system
Double circulatory system with two ventricles and no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
Prokaryotes thought to be the first organisms to be able to photosynthesise.
double circulatory system
Circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart twice for each complete circuit of the body.
incomplete circulatory system
Double circulatory system whose one ventricle may allow some mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
maximum oxygen uptake
Physiological measurement which acts as an indicator of a person's cardiovascular fitness.
Measure of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production or heat production per unit of time.
One of many tiny channels in the lungs of a bird which promote efficient gas exchange.
Sensor used to measure changes in factors such as temperature in a respirometer.
single circulatory system
Circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart once for each complete circuit of the body.
Heart chamber which pumps blood out of the heart to capillary beds.
Mechanism adopted by some conformers (unable to employ physiological mechanisms) to maintain an optimum metabolic rate.
Vital organs of body normally at 'deep body temperature' of around 37 degrees.
Outer layers and limbs of body which have a 'superficial body temperature' of around 33 degrees.
Organism unable to control its internal environment and dependent of its external environment.
Animal which is unable to regulate its body temperature by physiological means.
Muscle or gland which performs the body's response to stimuli following receipt of signals from the nervous system.
Animal which is able to regulate its body temperature by physiological means.
Region of the brain containing a centre which regulates body temperature.
Human body's community of cells and the tissue fluid that bathes them.
Mechanism of homeostasis whereby a change in a physiological factor triggers a response that counteracts the original change.
Maintenance of body's internal environment within tolerable limits by negative feedback control.
Organism able to control its internal environment and be independent of its external environment.
Structure which detects changes in body temperature.
Maintenance of a mammal's internal body temperature within a tolerable range.
Process by which the bore of skin arterioles become narrower.
Process by which the bore of skin arterioles become wider.
Type of dormancy which enables some animals to survive periods of excessive heat and drought.
Type of dormancy which takes place after the arrival of the adverse conditions.
Regular variation in environmental conditions often beyond the tolerable limits of an organism's metabolism.
Physiological state in which an animal's metabolic rate becomes reduced for part of each 24-hour cycle.
Period of an organisms' life cycle during which growth and development temporarily come to a halt.
Organism that lives in extreme conditions that would be lethal to most other living things.
heat-tolerant DNA polymerase
Enzyme extracted from thermophiles used in the polymerase chain reaction.
Type of predictive dormancy which enables some animals to survive adverse winter conditions.
Use of bands of tags to track the route and distance covered by a migratory animal.
Behaviour which is inherited and inflexible.
Behaviour which is gained by experience and is flexible.
Regular long-distance movement by the members of a species from one place to another.
Type of dormancy which takes place before the arrival of the adverse conditions.
Specialised piece of equipment attached to migratory animal which emits signals indicating the animal's route.
Techniques employed to try to maintain sterile conditions and eliminate contaminants while working with micro-organisms.
Building-up of a complex molecule from simpler ones by a cell.
Phase of growth during which the number of cells dying exceeds the number of new cells being produced.
Specialised container used to culture micro-organisms on a large scale to obtain a useful product.
mean generation time
Average time taken for a population of cells to double in number.
Process that occurs when an organism's rate of synthesis of organic materials exceeds the rate of their breakdown.
Substance such as nutrient agar or broth used to culture micro-organisms.
Metabolite which ensures that the gene coding for a certain enzyme remains switched on.
Metabolite which acts on an enzyme at an earlier stage in a pathway exerting negative feedback control.
Phase of growth during which cells adjust to the growth medium and show increased metabolic activity but no increase in number.
Phase of growth during which cells grow and multiply at the maximum rate.
Process by which a micro-organism's metabolism is deliberately altered to make it produce large quantities of metabolite.
Metabolite which occurs early in a pathway and gives rise to another metabolite later in the pathway.
Metabolite made by a microbe and essential for its growth.
Metabolite made by a microbe but not essential for its growth.
Phase of growth during which the rate of production of new cells equals the death rate of the old ones.
Type of chromosome constructed by scientists to act as a vector in DNA technology.
Enzyme used to seal a DNA fragment into a bacterial plasmid, or join fragments of the lagging strand during DNA replication.
Tendency of a mutant form of a gene to undergo reverse mutation and revert to the wild type form.
Heritable diversity that exists among living things.
Gene present in a plasmid which enables scientist to determine whether or not a host cell has taken up the plasmid.
The creation of mutations.
Referring to an agent (physical or chemical) that acts on DNA and causes mutations.
origin of replication
The site on a plasmid which contains genes controlling self-replication of plasmid DNA.
Small ring of DNA present in bacteria that is used as a vector in recombinant DNA technology.
recombinant DNA technology
Process by which genetic material from one organism is inserted into the genome of another.
Enzyme used to cut DNA into fragments and to cleave open bacterial plasmids that are to receive the DNA.
The location on a plasmid which is cut open by a restriction endonuclease.
Process by which only the organisms with desirable features are chosen as the parents of the next generation.
One of two structures formed at a restriction site when DNA is cut by a restriction endonuclease.
Agent, such as plasmid, by means of which a fragment of foreign DNA is inserted into a host cell.
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