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Contour Lines

lines that connect points of equal value.

Vector Data Forms

Points, Polygons, Lines

Discrete Variables

Fixed entitites, Can only take a specific value (Ex. number of students in a class, anything that is counted and not measured)

Continuous Variables

can assume all values between any two specific values. They are obtained by measuring.

Most popular form of USGS Map

7.5' Map


map in which some thematic mapping variable is substituted for area (like a graph in a map)


explanatory list of symbols on a map

North Arrow

symbol on a map used to show direction

Parts of Map

title, legend or key, grid system, distance scale, direction and compass rose

The Land Ordinance

townships were six miles square, and were subdivided into 36 sections, each section consisting of one square mile. One section of each township was set aside to support public education, and the remaining sections were to be sold at public auctions.

Verify Query

To avoid corrupt data!

Thematic Maps

A map containing information on only one topic or theme.

Reference Maps

maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude

Navigational Maps

sailors and pilots use these maps to navigate

Attribute Table

a tabular file containing rows and columns; descriptive attributes about some object such as a geographic feature are contained in each row

Natural Breaks

classes based on natural groupings through examination of histogram
(good: minimizes differences
bad: data range uneven)


Are points taken at regular intervals from the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of a random variable.

Equal Interval

A data classification method that divides a set of attribute values into groups that contain an equal range of values


Bands: 7
Spatial Res: 30m
Temporal Res: 16 day
Swath Width: 183km


Bands: 36
Spatial Res: 250m
Temporal Res: 1 day
Swath Width: 2,330km

Remote Sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.

Spectral Resolution

The range of wavelengths sampled by a remote sensor.

Swath Width

area of the Earth that is displayed in each image

Spatial Resolution

the smallest pixel size visible in an image, the limit of magnification

Dot Density Map

Thematic map that uses dots to represent the frequency of a variable in a given area.

Conformal Maps

Preserve Shape

Azimuthal Maps

Preserve Direction

Temporal Resolution

precision of a measurement with respect to time


Blue, Green, Red, NIR....

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