morpheme attached to the beginning or end of a base word to change meaning or pronunciation.
the repetition of letter sounds at the beginning of words in a sentence
The relationship between letters or combinations of letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes).
A collection of stories that match the instructional level of children
Large student friendly books that help students learn concepts of print and enjoy positive reading experience.
Combining the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word. Example /c/ /a/ /t/= cat
two or more individuals reading aloud from the same text in unison to enhance oral reading fluency.
A "fill-in-the-blank" assessment tool often used to test reading comprehension
Sound that a letter most frequently makes in a word.
concepts of print
print represents spoken language; print is directional from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc.....
A combination of two or three consonant letters in the same syllable that can be heard when pronounced. ex. st in star; str in strap
a pair of consonants that makes a single sound that is different from the speech sound that each individual letter represents. example: sh, ph, th
Context / Context Cues
Surrounding Information that helps understand the meaning of a word
The sound certain consonants make when the sound doesn't stop: /f/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /r/ /l/ /v/
Cumulative Story or Pattern Story
a story that has many elements or language patterns repeated until the climax; a predictable text.
Coherent texts in which most of the words are comprised of an accumulating sequence of letter-sound correspondences that students have learned and are learning.
To Convert printed words into their spoken forms by using knowledge of letter-sound relationships and word structure
removal of an initial or final sound or phoneme in a word
a speech sound that consists of two vowels pronounced in a word. ex. oi in toil
The left to right and top to bottom word progression while reading
Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school.
A reader who is developing an association of print with meaning. The early stages of learning ot read.
To convert spoken words into written forms
study of an origin of a word
students read below 89% accuracy at which the student cannot accurately recognize or understand the text
type or category of literary work (e.g., poetry, essay, short story, novel, drama)
letter or letters that represent one phoneme (CAT, c-a-t, contains 3 graphemes)
Knowledge that written words are made up of systematic letter patterns that represent sounds in pronounced words
high frequency words
The words most commonly used in reading and writing. Examples: Can, See
words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. wind-wind
words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Ex. whether and weather
words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings (sale/sail)
The level of reading material that a student can read independently with high comprehension and an accuracy level of 95-100%
An attempt to spell a word based on a student's knowledge of the spelling system and how it works (e.g., kt for cat).
large chart where students first write "what they Know", "what they want to Learn" and then "what I learned"
Language Experience approach
a reading strategy where students dictate stories to the teacher who records them, using students' own vocabulary, grammar, and experiences to develop reading, writing, and speaking abilities.
The organization of words (both spoken and written) into meaningful segments (phrases or sentences) using conventions of grammar and syntax.
Letter / Sound Association
making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics).
a reading approach based on highly regular spelling patterns. Such as: Nat the cat sat on the mat.
A type of writing that has a particular form, style, or content. ex. Realistic fiction, fantasy, non-fiction, mysteries
The first stage children experience when learning about words. Words learned as whole units are sometimes embedded in a logo such as a stop sign or the McDonald's arches
thinking about thinking
comparison between two unlike things WITHOUT using like or as
Words read differently than how they are written.
A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes they make when reading aloud.
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix or suffix).
the study of the structure of words; the creation of compound words
memory aids; like visual imagery. Ex. HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior)
Onsets and Rimes
Onsets are the consonants that come at the beginning of syllables in words (the "bl" in blend). Rimes are the vowels and consonants at the end of a syllable (end in blend)
Writing system of language, correct spelling
the smallest unit of sound in written or oral language
The ability to hear, identify,and manipulate the individual sounds, phonemes, in oral language.
the sounds that letters make and the letters that are used to represent sounds
teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations
the study of speech sounds in language
use of images that accompany and reflect the content of a text to help readers figure out words and understand the meaning of text
A collection of student generated products that shows student achievement, growth, progress, or improvement over a period of time
Rhythm of speech including phrasing, appropriate breathing, voice intonation, tone and attention to all punctuation marks.
Oral presentation of drama by two or more readers using a printed script; normally used to create motivation and oral fluency
Informal assessment which measures a child' fluency during oral reading and behavior
Support for a learner as he or she enters a phrase of readiness for a new skill
The ability to identify and separate sounds in words ( for purposes of blending)
The study of meaning in language (words, phrases, and sentences)
words children identify quickly, accurately, and effortlessly.
comparison of things that have something in common using "like" or "as"
Using phonics to figure out words.
A unit of speech heard as a single sound; Ex. ee in sheep
A book published and made available, for sale, to the general public.
Two vowel next next to each other in a syllable that make a single sound. Ex: seat, seed
Word Analysis/ Word Attack Strategies
the process readers use to figure out unfamiliar words based on written patterns
groups of words that have the same ending soudn (rime) but a different beginning sound (onset), such as can, man, fan.
Cards with words that can be sorted into two categories
An alphabetized chart posted in the classroom listing words students are learning.