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74 terms

EC-6 Generalist 191

STUDY
PLAY
Affix
morpheme attached to the beginning or end of a base word to change meaning or pronunciation.
Alliteration
the repetition of letter sounds at the beginning of words in a sentence
Alphabetic principle
The relationship between letters or combinations of letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes).
basal reader
A collection of stories that match the instructional level of children
big book
Large student friendly books that help students learn concepts of print and enjoy positive reading experience.
blending
Combining the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word. Example /c/ /a/ /t/= cat
choral reading/chanting
two or more individuals reading aloud from the same text in unison to enhance oral reading fluency.
cloze test
A "fill-in-the-blank" assessment tool often used to test reading comprehension
common sound
Sound that a letter most frequently makes in a word.
concepts of print
print represents spoken language; print is directional from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc.....
consonent cluster
A combination of two or three consonant letters in the same syllable that can be heard when pronounced. ex. st in star; str in strap
consonant diagraph
a pair of consonants that makes a single sound that is different from the speech sound that each individual letter represents. example: sh, ph, th
Context / Context Cues
Surrounding Information that helps understand the meaning of a word
Continuous Sound
The sound certain consonants make when the sound doesn't stop: /f/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /r/ /l/ /v/
Cumulative Story or Pattern Story
a story that has many elements or language patterns repeated until the climax; a predictable text.
Decodable Texts
Coherent texts in which most of the words are comprised of an accumulating sequence of letter-sound correspondences that students have learned and are learning.
Decode
To Convert printed words into their spoken forms by using knowledge of letter-sound relationships and word structure
Deletion
removal of an initial or final sound or phoneme in a word
Diphthong
a speech sound that consists of two vowels pronounced in a word. ex. oi in toil
Directionality
The left to right and top to bottom word progression while reading
Emergent Literacy
Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school.
Emergent Reader
A reader who is developing an association of print with meaning. The early stages of learning ot read.
Encode
To convert spoken words into written forms
Etomology
study of an origin of a word
Frustrational Level
students read below 89% accuracy at which the student cannot accurately recognize or understand the text
genre
type or category of literary work (e.g., poetry, essay, short story, novel, drama)
Grapheme
letter or letters that represent one phoneme (CAT, c-a-t, contains 3 graphemes)
graphophonemic knowledge
Knowledge that written words are made up of systematic letter patterns that represent sounds in pronounced words
high frequency words
The words most commonly used in reading and writing. Examples: Can, See
homographs
words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. wind-wind
homophones
words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Ex. whether and weather
homonyms
words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings (sale/sail)
Independent level
The level of reading material that a student can read independently with high comprehension and an accuracy level of 95-100%
invented spelling
An attempt to spell a word based on a student's knowledge of the spelling system and how it works (e.g., kt for cat).
KWL chart
large chart where students first write "what
they Know", "what they want to Learn" and
then "what I learned"
Language Experience approach
a reading strategy where students dictate stories to the teacher who records them, using students' own vocabulary, grammar, and experiences to develop reading, writing, and speaking abilities.
Language structure
The organization of words (both spoken and written) into meaningful segments (phrases or sentences) using conventions of grammar and syntax.
Letter / Sound Association
making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics).
Linguistic Approach
a reading approach based on highly regular spelling patterns. Such as: Nat the cat sat on the mat.
Literacy Genres
A type of writing that has a particular form, style, or content. ex. Realistic fiction, fantasy, non-fiction, mysteries
Logographic awareness
The first stage children experience when learning about words. Words learned as whole units are sometimes embedded in a logo such as a stop sign or the McDonald's arches
Metacognition
thinking about thinking
Metaphors
comparison between two unlike things WITHOUT using like or as
Miscues
Words read differently than how they are written.
Miscue analysis
A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes they make when reading aloud.
Morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix or suffix).
Morphology
the study of the structure of words; the creation of compound words
Mnemonics
memory aids; like visual imagery. Ex. HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior)
Onsets and Rimes
Onsets are the consonants that come at the beginning of syllables in words (the "bl" in blend). Rimes are the vowels and consonants at the end of a syllable (end in blend)
Orthography
Writing system of language, correct spelling
Phoneme
the smallest unit of sound in written or oral language
Phonemic awareness
The ability to hear, identify,and manipulate the individual sounds, phonemes, in oral language.
Phonics
the sounds that letters make and the letters that are used to represent sounds
Phonics approach
teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations
Phonology
the study of speech sounds in language
Picture Cues
use of images that accompany and reflect the content of a text to help readers figure out words and understand the meaning of text
Portfolio
A collection of student generated products that shows student achievement, growth, progress, or improvement over a period of time
prosody
Rhythm of speech including phrasing, appropriate breathing, voice intonation, tone and attention to all punctuation marks.
Reader's Theater
Oral presentation of drama by two or more readers using a printed script; normally used to create motivation and oral fluency
Running record
Informal assessment which measures a child' fluency during oral reading and behavior
Scaffolding
Support for a learner as he or she enters a phrase of readiness for a new skill
Segmentation
The ability to identify and separate sounds in words ( for purposes of blending)
semantics
The study of meaning in language (words, phrases, and sentences)
Sight words
words children identify quickly, accurately, and effortlessly.
Similes
comparison of things that have something in common using "like" or "as"
Sounding out
Using phonics to figure out words.
syllable
A unit of speech heard as a single sound; Ex. ee in sheep
syntax
sentence structure
Trade Book
A book published and made available, for sale, to the general public.
Vowel Diagraph
Two vowel next next to each other in a syllable that make a single sound. Ex: seat, seed
Word Analysis/ Word Attack Strategies
the process readers use to figure out unfamiliar words based on written patterns
Word Families
groups of words that have the same ending soudn (rime) but a different beginning sound (onset), such as can, man, fan.
Word sorts
Cards with words that can be sorted into two categories
Word wall
An alphabetized chart posted in the classroom listing words students are learning.