The relationship between letters or combinations of letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes).
Large student friendly books that help students learn concepts of print and enjoy positive reading experience.
two or more individuals reading aloud from the same text in unison to enhance oral reading fluency.
concepts of print
print represents spoken language; print is directional from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc.....
A combination of two or three consonant letters in the same syllable that can be heard when pronounced. ex. st in star; str in strap
a pair of consonants that makes a single sound that is different from the speech sound that each individual letter represents. example: sh, ph, th
The sound certain consonants make when the sound doesn't stop: /f/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /r/ /l/ /v/
Cumulative Story or Pattern Story
a story that has many elements or language patterns repeated until the climax; a predictable text.
Coherent texts in which most of the words are comprised of an accumulating sequence of letter-sound correspondences that students have learned and are learning.
To Convert printed words into their spoken forms by using knowledge of letter-sound relationships and word structure
Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school.
A reader who is developing an association of print with meaning. The early stages of learning ot read.
students read below 89% accuracy at which the student cannot accurately recognize or understand the text
Knowledge that written words are made up of systematic letter patterns that represent sounds in pronounced words
words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Ex. whether and weather
The level of reading material that a student can read independently with high comprehension and an accuracy level of 95-100%
An attempt to spell a word based on a student's knowledge of the spelling system and how it works (e.g., kt for cat).
large chart where students first write "what
they Know", "what they want to Learn" and
then "what I learned"
Language Experience approach
a reading strategy where students dictate stories to the teacher who records them, using students' own vocabulary, grammar, and experiences to develop reading, writing, and speaking abilities.
The organization of words (both spoken and written) into meaningful segments (phrases or sentences) using conventions of grammar and syntax.
Letter / Sound Association
making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics).
a reading approach based on highly regular spelling patterns. Such as: Nat the cat sat on the mat.
A type of writing that has a particular form, style, or content. ex. Realistic fiction, fantasy, non-fiction, mysteries
The first stage children experience when learning about words. Words learned as whole units are sometimes embedded in a logo such as a stop sign or the McDonald's arches
A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes they make when reading aloud.
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix or suffix).
memory aids; like visual imagery. Ex. HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior)
Onsets and Rimes
Onsets are the consonants that come at the beginning of syllables in words (the "bl" in blend). Rimes are the vowels and consonants at the end of a syllable (end in blend)
The ability to hear, identify,and manipulate the individual sounds, phonemes, in oral language.
teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations
use of images that accompany and reflect the content of a text to help readers figure out words and understand the meaning of text
A collection of student generated products that shows student achievement, growth, progress, or improvement over a period of time
Rhythm of speech including phrasing, appropriate breathing, voice intonation, tone and attention to all punctuation marks.
Oral presentation of drama by two or more readers using a printed script; normally used to create motivation and oral fluency
Two vowel next next to each other in a syllable that make a single sound. Ex: seat, seed
Word Analysis/ Word Attack Strategies
the process readers use to figure out unfamiliar words based on written patterns
groups of words that have the same ending soudn (rime) but a different beginning sound (onset), such as can, man, fan.