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anything that takes up space and has mass

physical properties

changes that do not effect the composition of the substance

chemical properties

changes to the composition of the substance due to a reaction between substances

examples of physical properties

density, color, hardness, freezing point, boiling point, conduction of electrical currents


a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means


smallest unit of an element that has the chemical properties of that element; each element is made up of one kind of element


subatomic particle in the nucleus that has a positive charge


subatomic particle in the nucleus that has a neutral charge (no charge positively or negatively)


subatomic particle with a negative charge that moves around the nucleus


one f two or more atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.


process of a solid turning directly to a gas without going through a liquid phase


process of a gas turning directly to a solid without going through the liquid phase


process of a gas turning into a liquid

melting point

process of solids changing to a liquid

freezing point

process of a liquid turning into a solid


process of liquid turning into a gas

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