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vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain


dens here provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)


transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs, spinous process pointing sharply downward


composite bone, articulates with the hip bone laterally


massive vertebrae, weight sustaining


tail bone, vestigial fused vertebrae


suppors the head, allows a rocking motion in the conjunction with the occipital condyles

vertebral foramen

cavity enclosing the spinal cord


weight bearing portion of the vertebra

spinous and transverse process

provide levers against which muscles pull

body and transverse process

two structures that provides an articulation point for the ribs

intervertebral foramina

openings providing for exit of spinal nerves

body and vertebral arch

two structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord

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