The Cold War- detente
Terms in this set (54)
US interpretation of detente
Nixon 'a means of controlling the conflict with the Soviet Union' not ending it (not permanent). Trying to drag USSR into interdependency. Both sides would benefit from cooperation, allowing US to be in position to control power of USSR.
USSR interpretation of detente
For Brezhnev, restoring equal relations and ending the Cold War.
Dominant view of the impact of detente
Preserved peace and gave peaceful change a chance. Stabilised the war, stabilised China and USSR, gave eastern bloc chance to change. Contributed to the end of the Cold War as the USSR came to rely on US investment.
Ronald Raegan view of the impact of detente
Compromised the values of the west. Detente benefitted authoritarian regimes by giving them eased relations to enable them to develop, new lease of life. Only when Raegan and Thatcher come to power that the Nixon approach is undone and massive pressure put on East to reform. The END of detente causes the end of the Cold War.
Artichoke approach to Sino-American relations
Peeling off layer by layer rather than all at once. US removes some trade controls and relaxes travel restrictions. Mao agrees to this as US less than a threat than Soviets. Marks a shift away from dual confrontation.
Why did Nixon place importance on relations with China?
Us in decline
Wanted to end war in Vietnam 'with honour'
Take advantage of hostility between USSR and China, forcing USSR into negotiations- 'linkage'.
Nixon in China
February 1972, meets Mao in Beijing.
China cooperates in ending Vietnam war. Nixon establishes triangular diplomacy.
Brings Brezhnev to negotiating table within three months.
Vietnam War dates
Join war in 1965.
Peace talks in 1973.
US withdrawal in 1975.
L B Johnson had escalated US involvement. Lack of justification for US involvement. 1969, crisis, lack of support and nearly 60,000 US soldiers dead.
Nixon's stance on Vietnam
Wanted 'peace with honour'. Didn't want to lose war and wanted to preserve non-Communism state. Wanted to use the example of European detente to justify US exit from Vietnam. Saw China as a form of pressure on N Vietnam.
Outcome of the Vietnam War
Vietnam reunited under Communist leadership. Humiliated US, Nixon criticised Kennedy and L B Johnson for having treated Vietnam as a pivotal state in the growth of Communism, when Vietnam was guided more by nationalism than dedication to Communism.
US should only intervene when national interest is involved. Regimes couldn't look to US any more for support in domestic conflict. Ending US globalism built on Truman Doctrine.
Impact of Vietnam War on America
Failure redefined American attitudes to the world. No longer the policeman of world peace and stability.
New wave of anti-Americanism which endured throughout the Cold War- US becomes the evil empire.
Helped with detente, cooled relations between US and USSR. Nixon meets Khrushchev May 1972.
Nixon's grand strategy
Grand Game- respond to changes in international relations, not proactive.
Vietnamise war, toughen up over Berlin, improve relations with China, reduce threat of hot war, force Soviets out of Egypt, take advantage of anti-Soviet opportunities in 3rd world- e.g Chilean coup in 1973.
Brandt condemns US approach to relations, especially acceptance of Berlin Wall as a permanent border. Saw the need to engage in diplomatic relations with the East by recognising GDR and implementing detente.
Accepting the status quo. Would lead to peaceful relations and potentially eventual reunification. Three treaties with the USSR, Poland and the GDR.
Treaty of Moscow
Implement detente and accept German borders.
German Polish Treaty
Acceptance of German-Polish border established at end of WWII
Guarantee Western access to Berlin. Wesr recognised East Berlin as integral part of East German state, not just a Soviet occupational zone.
Berlin would retain quatripartide agreement. Neutralised source of tension and opened way for further Ostpolitik.
Normalisation of relations between East and West Germany. FDR and GDR would recognise each other's sovereignty. Provided a route for other states to establish diplomatic relations with GDR. Both become UN members by Sept 1973.
Had been established since 1955 by Konrad Adenauer, West Germany wouldnt recognise GDR or establish relations with any other state that did recognise it.
A massive barrier to any further European detente.
Why were the Helsinki Accords foolish on the Soviet part?
Enabling human rights in USSR would have the 'butterfly effect' (Niall Ferguson). It was 'self-sabotage' as the whole Communist regime can openly be questioned and will lead to deterioration from within.
What were the Helsinki Accords?
Involved 35 states between 1973-75, representing a new era of IR not dominated by East West divisions.
The Final Act: Basket I- Security in Europe (recognising each other's territory)
Basket II- cooperation in economics, science, technology and environment
Basket III- Cooperation in Humanitarian field (enabled freer movement).
USSR gain international acceptance of their territory, in exchange for accepting human rights.
Followed the Helsinki Accords.
Starts 1969 finalised 1972.
Basic agreement: Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
Interim Agreement on Offensive Weapons
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
Constricts both superpowers to just two fields of ABMs each with a max of 100 missiles. Signifies the end of competition in this specific field- neither wanted a mutually destructive conflict.
Interim Agreement on Offensive Weapons
Freeze on Strategic missiles.
Max 1054 ICBMs for US, 1618 for USSR.
Meant to last for 5 years. Didnt address developments of newer technology (addressed at SALT II)
Relaxed tensions, greater path to detente.
Nixon on SALT I
'Last Friday in Moscow we witnessed the beginning of the end of that era which began in 1945. We took the first step towards a new era of mutually agreed restraint and arms restraint...with this step we have enhanced the security of both nations'.
Nixon-Brezhnev Moscow Summit
Agreement to expand cooperations in science, technology, space exploration etc. Now attemtping to combine forces instead of rival in same policy areas.
Basic Principles Agreement
12 principles agreed.
US and USSR would proceed with the idea that there is no alternative to conducting mutual relations other than on the basis of peaceful coexistence.
Determined to avoid situations escalating that could damage peaceful coexistence.
Deter situations that would provoke international tension.
Drawbacks of the Basic Principles Agreement
Had no legal status. Depended on both sides sticking to the agreement.
Different understanding: US- a set of principles as an aspiration of future IR
USSR- fundamental agreement, basis of relations. An acceptance of parity.
Instigated by Nixon + Kissinger who feared decline of US globalism. Feared European detente was enabling unilateral agreements with USSR and Europe (greater concern with US power than the future of detente).
Brezhnev pushes for guarantee that USSR-US relations come before Sino-US relations and no military alliance between US and China as part of improved relations.
Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War.
Agreement to enter immmediate consultation when critical situations arise -> crisis prevention strategy.
Why did detente come under question after the Agreement on the Prevention of War?
USSR: fears weakened defences, loss in ability to support states trying to shed Western control, feel ried down and restricted in its global role.
US: fears that detente removes vital deterrence in IR of MAD.
Third Soviet-American Summit
Opportunity to develop progress on SALT II.
Agree to reduce ABM sites from 2 to 1, 10 year agreement reached on economic, industrial and technical cooperation.
10 year plan created as a preliminary move towards a SALT II treaty. Soviets agree to equal levels of ICBMs.
Gerald Ford's approach
Aim in foreign affairs was to maintain US power and prestige after the collapse of South Vietnam in 1975. Detente continued under him, defeated 1976 by Carter.
Started with trying to establish more ambitious arms reduction programmes. SALT II, carter wanted to really reduce ICBMs and a ban on new types.
Why did the Soviets reject Carter's plan?
He presents it to them 1977, includes reducing modern ICBMs to 150, banning on development of new ones and a ban on all cruise missiles with range over 2500 km.
Had a greater impact on USSR, so Brezhnev rejects it.
Appeared that they were abandoning several years of SALT II progress 'one cannot talk about stability when a new leadership arrives and crosses out all that has been achieved before'.
Detente tensions under Carter
Carter stands by agreement of HR in Eastern bloc. 1977 US accuses Czechoslovakia of violating HR. US supports Soviet dissidents- involved in internal USSR affairs (against Helsinki Accords?)
National Security Advisor, Brezinski, aimed at developing US superiority and cared little for detente.
Carter uses this each time the USSR is seen as being expansionist in Africa, to have Sino power counter Soviet influence.
Carter gets close to China when USSR is active in developing states. China supports US as it fears a Soviet-Vietnam alliance.
Detente in 1979
Both sides still want SALT II to proceed.
Treaty finally announced in May 1979.
Some historians argue this was a slight blip in the irreversible deterioration of detente at this point.
Background to Arab-Israeli Conflict
Egyptian President Sadat wants to end Israeli occupation of Sinai region. Us supplies arms to Israel, USSR to Egypt. Persuaded them to broker ceasefire 22nd October 1973, but Israel reattacks.
How Arab-Israeli conflict challenged detente
USSR suggests combined effort of USSR and US to send it gtroops to make both sides cooperate in 2nd ceasefire. Kissinger responds 'we have not worked for years to reduce the Soviet military presence in Egypt only to cooperate in reintroducing it. Nor would we participate in joining forces with the Soviets, which would legitimise their role in the area'.
Goes against all principles of detente. Situation defused by sending US international force excluding both superpowers.
But realistically minimal dent in detente as neither wanted to engage in region significantly for fear of disturbing IR.
Appeal of Communism in the 1970s
US had lost Vietnam- not obvious at this point that they would win the ideological war, they were the evil empire. American PR bad in Latin America, Middle East, South-East Asia and Africa. US backing unappealing, oppressive regimes like Taliban, Iran.
Nature of the Cold War in the Third World
Participating in local wars undermined detente during the 70s.
Cold War was most hot during this period, with local wars and proxy wars in Third Party states. Involvement in developing world showed intention of both sides to gain ideological support in states that could shift the future balance of power.
Arno Westad 'the Cold War was a continuation of colonialism through slightly different means'. Most of the history of this region is shaped by ideological confrontation.
Angolan Civil War
USSR supports MPLA, left wing nationalists.
US and China support UNITA.
As soon as USSR involved, Kissinger convinced Angola is of global strategic importance.
US supporting losing side. 1976 MPLA won.
Why were the Soviets in Angola?
Trying to assert itself as the leader of Commuism, as Mao's China had taken a large role in Communist uprisings in the Third World, pressure on USSR to do the same. Castro had also already joined Angolan civil war, Castro's involvement dwarfed that of the Soviets, pressured into proving commitment to world prevalence of their ideology.
Impact of Angola on superpower detente
Dobrynin 'we persuaded the Americans that Moscow had undertaken a broad offensive against them for control of Africa'.
When US loses, Ford denounced Soviets and banned use of the word 'detente'
Kissinger 'detente would not survive any more Angolas'.
Tensions of 1979
Carter committed to human rights, interferes in E Europe.
Soviets less keen on detente.
Warsaw Pact forces modernised, more missiles pointed at NATO states.
SALT II stuck in difficult talks
Growing dissatisfaction in US that detente had cost them their supremacy- had frozen relations whilst USSR were ahead in arms race
Background to Afghanistan War
USSR invades 1979. President Amin had taken over, fears that these Islamic Fundamentalists would alienate many Afghans, and that the leadership would cosy up with the US right on the Soviet border. This would strengthen US position in the Middle East. Thus, intervene to restore a stable, left-wing state. USSR saw this as preserving the status quo and therefore not undermining the Basic Principles.
US reaction to Afghanistan invasion
USSR involvement in Afghanistan irrelevant to US, until US-ally in Iran overthrown in Iranian Revolution of 1978. Left Iran open to Soviet influence, US losing only strong hold in the region, making it a potentially Soviet dominated area.
When Soviets kill Amin and increase troops, thehy see this as active intervention instead of securing its border. Carter 'blatant violation of accepted international rules of behaviour' and a 'grave threat to peace'. Many argue US did not investigate causes of USSR intervention and therefore acted irrationally.
Consequences of the Afghanistan War
Detente dies- SALT II abandoned.
Deferral of action on cultural and economic exchanges.
Ban on the sale of high technology and strategic items to the USSR
Enhanced US security
'The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan is the greatest threat to peace since the Second World War... The Soviet move into Afghanistan would have resulted in the temptation to move again and again until...they acquired control over a major portion of the world's oil supply'.
American commitment to prevent expansion, so committed to building strategic forces. E,g- expand relations with China.
Tries to persuade west to suspend Ostpolitik. (European detente remains- no longer saw itself as US' pawn in global power strategy when it benefited from detente).
Defence budget increased in 1981- US foreign policy returns to hostility.
USSR response to Carter Doctrine
Saw it as a pretext to dismantle detente and revive the arms race. A complete over reaction.