31 terms

Chapter 12-13 1920's

Terms, people, and ideas association with the study of the 1920's in U.S. History.
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nativism
the belief that those born in a country are superior to immigrants
isolationism
a policy of non-participation in international economic and political relations
communism
a political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government
anarchists
Group of people that believed that government exploits people on behalf of the wealthier classes and wanted to destroy all governments.
Sacco and Vanzetti
two Italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; Anarchists; heightened American fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs
quota system
system that limited immigration by allowing only a certain number of people from each country to immigrate to the US; response to fear of immigration
John L. Lewis
Founder of a new labor organization that sought to organize unskilled workers in the basic industries (the CIO)
Warren G. Harding
The 29th President of the United States (Republican); promised a "return to normalcy" following World War I; dedicated to peace abroad; administration plagued by corruption and scandal
Charles Evans Hughes
Secretary of State under Harding, Proposed a 10-year moratorium on the construction of major new warships at the Washington Conference
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
1922 and 1930, raised tariffs to 60% on imported manufactured goods; benefited domestic manufacturers, but limited European nations from paying off war debt
Ohio Gang
Harding's "advisers" who played poker, drank, and smoked with him in the White House, involved in scandals that gave Harding a bad name.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money; 1921
Albert B. Fall
The Harding Cabinet member who profited from and was convicted for the Teapot Dome Scandal; 1st cabinet member sent to prison
Calvin Coolidge
30th president, served from 1923-1929 with a pro-business aim; known as "Silent Cal"; favored deregulation on business; low taxes; high tariffs
urban sprawl
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
installment plan
A payment plan that allows customers to make payments at set intervals over a period of time until the total debt is paid
Prohibition
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
speakeasy
Illegal bar that served liquor during Prohibition
bootlegger
a person who smuggled alcoholic beverages into the United States during prohibition
Al Capone
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
fundamentalism
Belief that the Protestant Bible should be taken literally; gathered strength in the 1920's rural communities; Fundamentalist Christian Americans felt alienated from city life, science, and modernization.
Clarence Darrow
United States lawyer famous for his defense of lost causes (1857-1938)
Scopes Trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
flapper
a young woman in the 1920s who flaunted her unconventional conduct and dress
double standard
a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
Charles Lindbergh
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
F Scott Fitzgerald
He belonged to the Lost Generation of Writers. He wrote the famous novel "The Great Gatsby" which explored the glamor and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society.
Ernest Hemingway
Member of the Lost Generation of Writers; one of the most popular writers of the 1920's who wrote "A Farewell to Arms"
Lost Generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
Marcus Garvey
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished