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ASCP Practice Questions Parasitology
Terms in this set (25)
The gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum are the only malarial organisms that assume a characteristic banana shape.
I reside inside red blood cells, where I grow and grow until the cells are eventually destroyed.
A. Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes
B. Plasmodium ovale gametocytes
C. Plasmodium malariae gametocytes
D. Plasmodium vivax gametocytes
Plasmodium falciparum ring forms often resemble a walkman headset by containing two chromatin dots instead of one, as commonly seen in the other Plasmodium species. These dots serve as connecting points for the ring of cytoplasm.
This suspicious form was recovered in blood. Please identify the species listed below that matches the parasites shown in the image with arrows.
A. Plasmodium vivax
B. Plasmodium malariae
C. Plasmodium falciparum
The Taenia solium scolex is identified by the presence of four suction-cuplike suckers and the presence of a fleshy rostellum with hooklets.
This parasite resides in human intestine.
A. Taenia solium scolex
B. Hymenolepis nana scolex
C. Dipylidium caninum scolex
D. Diphyllobothrium latum scolex
The CDC states that untreated malaria can progress to severe forms that may be rapidly (<24 hours) fatal, malaria should always be considered in patients who have a history of exposure (mostly: past travel or residence in disease-endemic areas). The most frequent symptoms include fever and chills, which can be accompanied by headache, myalgias, arthralgias, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and others. The clinical presentation can vary substantially depending on the infecting species, the level of parasitemia, and the immune status of the patient. Infections caused by P. falciparum can progress to severe, potentially fatal forms with central nervous system involvement (cerebral malaria), acute renal failure, respiratory distress syndrome, massive hemolysis causing severe anemia, blackwater fever, and blockage of capillaries.
Which malaria infection is associated with massive hemolysis, blackwater fever, and blockage of capillaries?
A. Plasmodium vivax
B. Plasmodium falciparum
C. Plasmodium ovale
D. Plasmodium malariae
E. both a & c
Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) eggs are routinely found on scotch tape preparations. Their size, shape (particularly the fact that they are flattened on one side), somewhat refractive appearance and the presence of a double layer cell wall aid in their identification.
This suspicious form, seen in a scotch tape prep, measures 54 micro meters by 28 micro meters.
A. Trichuris trichiura egg
B. Ascaris lumbricoides egg
C. Enterobius vermicularis egg
Schistosoma mansoni is a fluke that resides in the portal system venules, primarily those of the lower intestine. Cercariae (the free-swimming larval stage of the fluke) is released from infected snails (the intermediate host) into freshwater estuaries. Humans that are in the water may become infected through skin penetration by the cercariae. The cercaria then enters the blood circulation, finally settling into the intrahepatic portal blood vessels of the intestine where it matures.
Which one of the following parasites migrates through the circulation (blood) before maturing in the portal venous system?
A. Schistosoma mansoni
B. Enterobius vermicularis
C. Taenia saginata
D. Trichuris trichiura
Echinococcus species eggs, passed by infected animals, are ingested by the grazing farm animals or man, localize in different organs and develop into hydatid cysts containing many larvae (hydatid sand). Echinococcus eggs, when swallowed by man, produce embryos that penetrate the small intestine, enter the circulation and form cysts in liver, lung, bones, and sometimes, brain.
The term "hydatid sand" is used in reference to which of the following tapeworms?
A. Taenia saginata
B. Echinococcus species
C. Hymenolepis diminuta
D. Hymenolepis nana
Entamoeba histolytica cysts are characterized by their size (usually larger than 10 micro meters) and the presence of 2 to 4 nuclei each consisting of a small central karyosome inside a ring of evenly distributed peripheral chromatin. Thin chromatin bars are also common in older cysts.
I measure 15 micro meters and am found in stool.
A. Entamoeba histolytica cyst
B. Entamoeba hartmanni cyst
C. Entamoeba coli cyst
D. Endolimax nana cyst
Entamoeba hartmanni and Entamoeba histolytica are basically identical with the exception of size. Entamoeba hartmanni is typically smaller that Entamoeba histolytica measuring less than 10 micro meters.
This suspicious form, found in a stool sample, measures 15 micro meters.
A. Entamoeba histolytica
B. Entamoeba hartmanni
C. Entamoeba coli
The scolex is a hook-like mouth part of a tapeworm used to attach to the lining of the intestines.
The portion of a tapeworm used for attachment to the host's intestine is called the:
Although the larval form of Ascaris migrates through the lung, where it can cause Loeffler's syndrome, the mature form lives in the duodenum or proximal jejunum within the small intestines. The adults are very large worms, and can measure up to 35 cm in length.
Adult Ascaris lumbricoides worms live in the:
C. Small Intestines
D. Large Intestines
Although this suspicious form resembles an intestinal nematode larva, internal structures necessary for it to function as well as to identify it as a parasite are lacking. Numerous such pseudoparasites may be present in stool samples.
This suspicious form was found in stool.
B. Hookworm rhabditiform larva
C. Strongyloides rhabditiform larva
D. Strongyloides filariform larva
The majority of the amoebae pass through two life cycle stages: a delicate feeding stage call a trophozoite, and an nonfeeding infective cyst. Recovery of either form is considered diagnostic.
The infective stage for the majority of all intestinal amoebae is the:
Babesia is a parasite of the blood that causes Babesiosis where the parasites live intracellularly in red blood cells. This condition causes anemia. The parasites actually resemble malaria.
This organism is found endemically on the New England seacoast. When seen in peripheral blood smears, it resembles a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. When an organism RESEMBLING malarial parasites is found in the peripheral blood, it is MOST probably:
A. Leishmania donovani
B. Trypanosoma cruzi
D. Loa loa
E. giant platelets
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. According to the CDC, the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors that are found only in the Americas (mainly, in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread).
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of:
A. African sleeping sickness
B. relapsing fever
E. Chagas' disease
Trichinella spiralis enter their hosts through the ingestion of undercooked pork containing encysted larvae.
Which of the following parasites enters its host through ingestion of infected pork?
A. Schistosoma mansoni
B. Trichinella spiralis
C. Necator americanus
D. Ascaris lumbricoides
Since Echinococcus granulosus tends to form cysts in lung or liver tissue, diagnosis usually requires ultrasound, CT, or MRI to detect the location of one or more brood cysts. Diagnosis can also be confirmed by examining cyst tissue or contents for evidence of the parasite. Finally, diagnosis can also be made through serologic exam or skin testing.
Which one of the following is the INCORRECT match between organism and the appropriate diagnostic procedure?
A. Trichinella spiralis - serologic testing
B. Cryptosporidium - modified acid-fast stain
C. Echinococcus granulosus - routine ova and parasite examination
D. Schistosoma haematobium - examination of urine sediment
E. Mycobacterium tuberculosis - acid fast stain
Rickettsia are gram-negative coccobacilli which are classified as obligate intracellular parasites. They are able to invade various eukaryotic host cells such as reticuloendothelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Rickettsiae are transmitted to humans through infected arthropods, and hard ticks serve as both vectors and reservoir hosts for most spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae
Which of the following organisms is an obligate intracellular parasite:
Iodine mounts are helpful to visualize the internal structures of parasites such as protozoan cysts. Protozoans occurs as trophozoites and cysts, not as larvae and eggs. Saline mounts help to observe protozoan motility.
The Iodine prep method is used to detect which of the following protozoan stages:
The thick smear is prepared and stained with Giemsa stain is used to detect Plasmodium species. If Plasmodiumorganisms are present, the parasitic cytoplasm stains blue while the nuclear material stains red to purple.
Thick Giemsa-stained smears are primarily used to screen for the presence of:
A. Paragonimus westermani
B. Toxoplasma gondii
C. Plasmodium species
D. Onchocerca volvulus
According to the CDC, speciation of Taenia is impossible if solely based on microscopic examination of eggs, because all Taenia species produce eggs that are morphologically identical. Eggs of Taenia sp. are also indistinguishable from those produced by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. Microscopic identification of gravid proglottids (or, more rarely, examination of the scolex) allows species determination.
Upon reviewing a fecal preparation for Ova and Parasites, a technologist thought he/she had just identified the egg of Taenia saginata. After a quick look, the Microbiology supervisor reminded the technologist that T. saginata eggs are indistinguishable from which of the following?
A. Dipyllidium caninum
B. Echinococcus granulosus
C. Hymenolepsis diminuta
D. Taenia solium
A string test involves swallowing a string to obtain a sample from the upper part of the small intestine. The sample is then tested to detect the presence of intestinal parasites, especially Giardia lamblia.
The string test may be helpful in diagnosing an infection with which organism?
A. Entamoeba coli
B. Dientamoeba fragilis
C. Giardia lamblia
D. Balantidium coli
E. Taenia solium
Multiple ring forms are most frequently seen in Plasmodium falciparum. The trophozoite develops into a schizont made up of multiple ring forms (also known as merozoites) via schizogony, or asexual replication. The schizont then matures which causes the rupture of the erythrocytes- releasing merozoites into the circulation which in turn infect other erythrocytes
Multiple ring forms are most frequently seen in which Plasmodium?
Paragonimus westermani is the only fluke egg known to be found in human sputum. The characteristic size, shape and the presence of an obvious operculum aid in its identification.
Recovered from a sputum sample, this suspicious form measures 112 micro meters by 55 micro meters.
A. Schistosoma mansoni egg
B. Paragonimus westermani egg
C. Pneumocystis carinii cyst
D. Diphyllobothrium latum egg
Although Trichomonas vaginalis may be recovered from a urine sample, it is relatively small in size (about 30 micro meters) and assumes the characteristic flagellate trophozoite appearance. The only egg, as seen in the photograph, typically recovered in such samples is that of Schistosoma haematobium. This organism is characterized by its distinct shape, particularly the presence of a large terminal spine opposite a rounded end.
This suspicious form, found in urine, measures 120 micro meters by 50 micro meters.
A. Schistosoma japonicum
C. Trichomonas vaginalis
D. Schistosoma haematobium
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