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APHUG Chapters 9 & 11 Terms
Terms in this set (53)
a model where the wealthiest nations are the core and LDC's are the periphery
the continued dependency of LDC's on MDC's where the elite control the majority of the wealth in the LDC
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
any one of the world's poor, or "have not" nations
A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing.
A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions
Describes the role of information technology, and how it grows within an organization
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital
a process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
states that have passed right-to-work laws,prohibit union security agreements, or agreements between employers and labor unions, that govern the extent to which an established union can require employees' membership, payment of union dues, or fees as a condition of employment,either before or after hiring.
alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
the percentage of a country's people who can read and write
Foreign Direct Investment
investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
Nolan's Stages of Growth Model
This growth model concerns the growth of information technology within a business or organization. It is divided into six stages concerning the development of technology within a given organization including initiation, contagion, control, integration, data administration, and maturity
Gender-Related Development Index
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
Producing abroad parts or products for domestic use or sale
Rostow's Development Model
one of the major historical models of economic growth.
Gross Domestic Product
the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally 1 year)
North American Free Trade Agreement
Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico and the United States in December, 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross border movement of goods and services between the countries
Human Development Index
Indicator of level development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
New International division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low paid, less skilled workers, from more developed countries to less developed countries.
International Monetary Fund
Provides loans to countries experiencing balance-of-payments problems that threaten expansion of international trade.
Less Developed Country
a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
Wallerstein's World Systems Theory
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world in inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
special economic zone on Mexico's northern border with the United States
an industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
More Developed Country
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Just in time delivery
the shipment of parts and materials to a factory immediately before they are needs.
extracts minerals from the earth, usually through agriculture
form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labour to produce it
Industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms.
The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
The economic principle that multiple changes are set in motion by a single event.
industrializing mostly capital countries which are positioned between the periphery and core countries.
Structural adjustment program
are economic policies for developing countries that have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the early 1980s by the provision of loans conditional on the adoption of such policies
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory; commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution.
Alfred Weber's theory of industrial location, firms will locate where they can minimize transportation and labor costs as well as take advantage of agglomeration economies.
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume the the inputs
(also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing) and the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, and extraction such as mining).
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
differs from a traditional MNC in that it does not identify itself with one national home. While traditional MNCs are national companies with foreign subsidiaries, TNCs spread out their operations in many countries sustaining high levels of local responsiveness.
the adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
laws requiring a factory to provide an "open shop" and prohibit "closed shop" Closed shop means that every employee has to join a union, in an open shop they can choose if they want
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
are usually small scale compared to the principal activity they support. The output is always intended for immediate consumption within the same entity and therefore it is not usually recorded separately
includes the international Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), they provide loans for the reform of public administration and legal institutions
savings which arise from the concentration of industries in urban areas and their location close to linked activities
World Trade Organization
Works to reduce barriers to international trade in two principle ways. First, through negotiating reduction or elimination of international trade restrictions on manufactured goods. Also reduced or eliminated are restrictions on the international movement of money by banks, corporations, and wealthy individuals.
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