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Unit 7 Vocabulary - Oceans and Climate
Terms in this set (31)
The total amount of dissolved salts in a water sample
A large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents; the apparent deflection of a freely moving object like water or air because of Earth's rotation
The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and clouds in an area
A climate event that occurs every two to seven years in the Pacific Ocean, during which winds shift and push warm water toward the coast of South America
The movement of cold water upward from the deep ocean that is caused by wind
The maximum density of water is reached at 39 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celcius). Water becomes less dense both at higher and lower temperatures.
As more material (minerals, gasses, salts) is dissolved in water the more it will weigh and the more dense it will be, thus ocean water is more dense than pure water.
The force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted; pressure increases continuously with depth in the ocean.
The envelope of gases that surrounds Earth
part of Earth's surface that extends seaward from the continental margins (the submerged outer edges of continents, each composed of a continental shelf and a continental slope); when a surface current collides with land, the current must change direction
carbon dioxide reservoir
Carbon-storing natural feature (such as an ocean, aforest or the land mass) that exchanges carbon with other reservoirs; a reservoir from which no outflow of carbon compounds takes place is called carbon sink.
any of the geographical zones loosely divided according to prevailing climate and latitude
the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature
a more variable climate dominated by a vast expanse of land
the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
deep ocean currents
more dense water pushes deeper water out of its way and that water moves along the bottom of the ocean; deep water mixes with less dense water as it flows; see thermohaline circulation
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Short-term changes in climate are common; the largest and most important of these is the oscillation between El Niño and La Niña conditions. This cycle drives changes in climate that are felt around the world about every two to seven years.
to change from a liquid or solid state into vapor
global atmospheric circulation
the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the smaller ocean circulation) by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of the Earth; see Coriolis effect
Lakes, oceans and rivers often serve as thermal reservoirs in geophysical processes, such as the weather. In atmospheric science, large air masses in the atmosphere often function as thermal reservoirs.
a moderate climate dominated by a nearby ocean
Oceans and the atmosphere constantly interact with each other, especially in transferring energy; for example, evaporation from warm oceans removes latent heat from the atmosphere as it introduces water vapour, and the condensation of this vapour at height releases this latent heat (See tropical cyclone). Additionally, surface winds drive the ocean currents, moving warm water polewards and cold water equatorwards. Since conditions in the atmosphere change much more rapidly than in the ocean, the atmosphere and oceans alter continuously, in response to each other.
Ocean-atmosphere oscillations are ocean-atmosphere responses which switch suddenly from one phase to another. Currently, five major ocean-atmosphere oscillations have been recognized: the North Atlantic, the Arctic, the Pacific Decadal, the El Niño-Southern, and the Antarctic Polar Wave. Each of these interactions has profound effects on weather and climate, and all interact with each other.
Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/ocean-atmosphere-interaction#ixzz2tiJKzNVr
Scientists have divided the ocean into five main layers. These layers, known as "zones", extend from the surface to the most extreme depths where light can no longer penetrate. These deep zones are where some of the most bizarre and fascinating creatures in the sea can be found. As we dive deeper into these largely unexplored places, the temperature drops and the pressure increases at an astounding rate.
ocean water moves in predictable ways along the ocean surface; caused by three things - global wind patterns, the rotation of the Earth, and the shape of the ocean basins; are extremely important because they distribute heat around the planet and are a major factor in influencing climate around the globe
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface
these winds greatly influence the climate of a region because they bring the weather from the locations they come from
The direct transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves
a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time; generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface, and biosphere; the climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents; climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation.
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
temperature and salinity (density) driven currents that drive deep ocean circulation
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