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42 terms

UT K-16 (Unit 3B)

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inner core
a very dense layer at the center of the earth, rich in nickel and iron, which is thought to be solid
outer core
the layer of dense liquid rock that surrounds the inner core
crust
the solid layer at the surface of the planet
continental crust
thicker and makes up continental land masses
oceanic crust
relatively thin surface of the earth which lies under the oceans
tectonic plates
crust is divided into large sections
mantle
82% of the earth's volume is contained in the layer & lies between the core and the crust
asthenosphere
the upper layer of the mantle created heat and pressure.
lithosphere
the thin, rigid layer of the mantle just above the asthenosphere and the crust
geologic time
Geologic events and changes
theory of plate tectonics
theory of plates meeting at boundaries, which differ based on the direction of the plates' movements at these boundaries
convergent boundary
formed where plates are moving toward each other
divergent boundaries
formed where tectonic plates are moving away from each other
Transform boundaries
formed where plates slide past one another
Faults
fractures in the lithosphere at this type of boundary
Earthquakes
the vibrations in the lithosphere that result from the movement of plates
epicenter
an earthquake is the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focal point
focal point
the underground location where the energy from the quake is released
tsunami
a large tidal wave initiated by movements of the seafloor
volcano
formed by molten rock from the asthenosphere
lava
magma when it reaches the earth's surface
Topography
the physical features of the land
Elevation
the vertical distance, or height, above sea level
Latitude
how far a point is north or south of the equator
Longitude
how many degrees to the east or west of the Prime Meridian a point is
topographic map
the elevation of the physical features of the land using contour lines
Contour lines
drawn on the map along specific elevations of the ground
contour interval
The vertical distance between contour lines representing the elevation change
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
A new technology many scientists use to visualize landforms and other landscape information
depositional processes
Surface events that build up the land
erosional processes
Events that wear away the land
Erosion
the process of moving loosened rock or soil away from where it was formed by wind, water, or gravity and depositing it elsewhere
Glaciers
large bodies of ice carve out valleys and erode mountains as they move slowly outward or downhill
ore
rock that contains a mineral resource along with other unusable material
High-grade ore
ore from which the mineral is relatively easy to extract
Low-grade ore
ore in which the mineral is more difficult or more costly to extract
Mining
the commercial activity that harvests valuable minerals from the ground
surface mining
Layers of materials that may be covering the deposit
mining spoils
waste materials generated from mining, such as soil and rocks
Reclamation
the process of restoring the land to its original condition following a disturbance
subsurface mining
takes place if deposits are too deep for surface mining
Smelting
the process by which a mineral resource is separated from an ore by heating