Autoclave: pressurized steam of 121ºC for 15-20 min.
Physical Control of Microbial Growth:
1. most dependable method for destruction of all life-forms, including spores
2. disadvantage: cannot be used for some plasticware (those that melt) and dulls instruments
3. useful for blankets, bedding, utensils
4. to check effectiveness, a culture strip containing Bacillus spores is included (later cultured)
5. prevacuum ........: similar method but air is drawn out to decrease processing time