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Anthropology Exam #2

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Sunda/Sahul
Western Pacific:

Sunda: Java, Sumatra, Bali, and Borneo were connected to each other in a single land mass

Sahul : New Guinea, Tasmania, and Australia were all connected, but not to Asian
Peopling of New World:
Ice Free Corridor & Inland route : Theory belongs to which person?
From: Asia/Siberia
Used the land bridge. Essentially, the hypothesis suggested that Clovis culture hunters arrived in North America chasing after megafauna (mammoth and bison) through a corridor between the ice slabs.
Moved from the ice free corridor at 14,000
McHaffey cache: A biochemical analysis of a rare Clovis-era stone tool cache recently unearthed in the city limits of Boulder, Colo., indicates some of the implements were used to butcher ice-age camels and horses
13,000 yrs ago
Doug Bamforth
DNA Evidence
Peopling of the New World:

Coastal Route
Used boats and moved because of coastal resources : followed the shore of the Pacific from Oregon to Chile

-- Monte Verde : Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, located near Puerto Montt, Southern Chile, which has been dated to 14,800 years BP. This dating adds to the evidence showing that the human settlement of the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1000 years. This contradicts the previously accepted "Clovis first" model which holds that settlement of the Americas began after 13,500 BP.

Remains at Monte Verde—wooden artifacts and house planks, fruits, berries, seeds, leaves, and stems, as well as marine algae, crayfish, chunks of animal hide, and what appeared to be several human coprolites found in three small pits—were unlike anything most of us, who long ago had learned to be used to stone tools and grateful for occasional bits of bone, had ever seen.

Tom Dillehay

DNA evidence
Peopling of the New World:

Land Bridge
Land Bridge Theory Synopsis: The Land Bridge Theory, also known as the Bering Strait Theory or Beringia Theory, is a popular model of migration into the New World. This theory was first proposed in 1590 by José de Acosta and has been widely accepted since the 1930s. The Land Bridge Theory proposes that people migrated from Siberia to Alaska across a land bridge that spanned the current day Bering Strait.
Span of existence: 35,000-11,000

Archaeologists long thought the first Americans were the Clovis people, who were said to have reached the New World some 13,000 years ago from northern Asia.

But first archaeological finds prove that humans reached the Americas thousands of years before that.
The Clovis Culture:
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named after distinct stone tools found at sites near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.

--characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools.

All dated Clovis sites 13,050 -12,800 years ago (250 years)
Gault Site, TX:
Gault is particularly well known for the large quantities of Clovis materials--more than 600,000 Clovis age artifacts have been recovered from excavations which have exposed less than 3% of the total site area. This constitutes about 60% of all known Clovis artifacts recovered in North America, making Gault an unprecedented research collection.

Clovis site at spring
Hunted horse, bison, mammoth
Frogs, birds, small mammals, roots, etc
Site used repeatedly
Entry Date of People to New World: 2 Theories:
1.Clovis Hypothesis: first people are Clovis and came about 13,000 years ago
2.Pre-Clovis: first people arrived very early -15-30,000 years ago
To Confirm Pre-Clovis sites, need: (4)
1.Evidence of humans (bodies, artifacts, features).
2.Undisturbed
3.Dates associated with evidence 4.Paleoenvironmental matches time period
Meadowcroft Rockshelter, PA
One of the oldest and most stratified archeological sites ever excavated in North America. Within the natural rock enclosure evidence shows that humans made tools, cooked food, threw away trash, and ultimately took full advantage of the natural protection that a cave provides. This site possesses one of the oldest radiocarbon dates associated with human-made material south of

Alaska - some 400 lithic artifacts were found dating to at least 13,400 years ago. 6 dates earlier than 12,800 years ago.

However, it was proposed that there was contamination (whether by coal or some other material)
was actually demonstrated by the context of the samples which indicated the dates were
incorrect. -- contaminated the radio carbon dating
Manis Site, WA
The Manis Mastodon site is a 2-acre (1 ha) archaeological site on the Olympic Peninsula near Sequim, Washington, USA. During the dig, the remains of an American mastodon was recovered which had a projectile made of the bone from a different mastodon embedded in its rib.

13,800 yrs ago

"smoking gun"
Why Don't We Find Many Coastal Sites?
Earliest sites disappeared underwater
Santa Rosa Island, CA
12,200 -11,200 yrs ago

"They probably used boats since they had to get to the island, and they hunted a variety of marine birds, seals and sea lions and collected shellfish," Rick said. "These are all early clues to human life ways at the [late] Pleistocene."

Shells and stone tools
DNA sequence for early remains: (2) sites
Yucatan Cave (Hoyo Negro)
Young girl12-13,000 yrs ago
DNA = Asian origin

Anzick Burial, Montana
1.5 year old child
Covered in red ochre; Clovis artifacts
12,800 years old
DNA = Asian
Peopling of the Americas Summary
When: Not undisputed evidence yet of people before 13,000 years, but many possible sites.
How: Bering Strait/Ice-Free Corridor, but also likely by boat along the coast.
Who: People from Asia perhaps in several waves
AFTER THE ICE : 3 Main?
Mesolithic (Old World)
Archaic (New World)
Jomon (Japan)

13/10,000 -5000 years ago

Holocene/Recent Period =Our Current Geologic Age
Changes at End of Ice Age: Which main change leads the a differentiation of life?
Climate ----> Geography / Plants & Animals

Last Glacial Maximum (25-20,000 yrs ago)

Ice Sheets 2.5 miles thick!Lots more dry land

Warming Trend Begins 20,000 yrs ago

Rapid warming (less than one life-time)
Doggerland
The Flooding of Doggerland
Tsunami 8000 years ago.

Doggerland is now believed to have been settled by Mesolithic people, probably in large numbers, until they were forced out of it thousands of years later by the relentlessly rising sea.

First, there are the treasures brought up in the fishermen's nets. In addition to the human jawbone, Glimmerveen has accumulated more than a hundred other artifacts—animal bones showing signs of butchery and tools made from bone and antler, among them an ax decorated with a zigzag pattern.
Mesolithic vs Archaic vs Jomon
The Mesolithic: Cultural period after the Paleolithic and before the Neolithic. A period of proliferation of many regional adaptions and an explosion of local cultural diversity.

Archaic: Chronological period in the New World that follow the Paleoindian Period. It represents a period of cultural adaption to the new, postglacial environment by Native American.

Jomon: A Japanese culture dating from 13,000 years ago.
Post-Pleistocene Changes:

Environment:

Geographic:

Behavioral:
Environment: Warmer temperatures, megafauna was replaced by smaller game

Geographic: No ice, forest develops, desert areas are wetter, coastlines and lakeshores are rich environments for people

Behavioral changes: Subsistence -smaller animals, more plants, fish & coastal resources
Settlements -larger, more permanent
Social Organization -more complex (more people to organize!)
Mt. Sandel, Ireland9000 yrs ago
Storage pits
More permanent houses
More trash
Wide variety of tools
Microliths
Ground stone
Which of the following best describes the Mesolithic and Archaic , according to Feder?
Cultural regions or territories (as indicated by tool types) were MUCH smaller than during the preceding Paleolithic period; people adapted to local resources within smaller regions.
Vedbaek, Denmark

Mesolithic Site
6800 years ago

60 species fish, reptiles, birds, sea mammals

Also, red deer, roe deer, wild pig, nuts and other plants

Gathering Shellfish/Fishing

Also has a large cemetery: people are placed very carefully

One of the burials at Vedbaek, a woman and child, contained a rich assortment of grave goods consisting of over 200 boar and deer teeth pendants, red ochre and a swan's wing
New World Archaic

Black Earth Site, IIlinois
5-6,000 years ago
•60,000 animal bones (77 species)
•Reptiles, birds, turtles, fish, turkey, deer
•Fur, feathers, shell
•Nuts & berries
Projectile points, drills, hide scrapers, ground stone, awls
•Hair ornaments
•Needles
•Fishooks
•Turtle shell made into bowls, cups, & rattles

Black Earth Cemetery
•500 graves (154 excavated)
•21% infants
•75% had no grave goods
Jomon Culture, Japan -----Annual cycle:
"One of the most affluent forager cultures ever to exist"
Jomon Annual Cycle: Annual cycle of the regeneration of the range of resources, and beginning of procurement of such resources, resulted in the formation of the fixity and predictability embedded in the annual cycle of nature.
Prelude to agriculture which arrived at different times in different parts of the world
--Had a storage pit
Floats, nets, net weights, fishhooks, harpoons, canoes = fishing VERY important to Jomon(freshwater & deepwater)
Nittano site
Midden= 23 species of mollusks and 13 of fish

(2) The evidence for the seasonality of molluscs and fish at Nittano, although by no means incontrovertible, indicates the possibility that the site was a base settlement occupied over several seasons rather than a temporary camp occupied only in one particular season.

(3) The Nittano people probably divided their marine territory into two activity areas which were exploited by different age and/or sex groups within the society. The younger men would go fishing to the more distant bay shore, but the older men and women would exploit the location near the site.
Jomon village
•5-50 pit houses in horseshoe shape
•Communal structures at edge of village
•Burials in communal structures or in houses.
•Center of horseshoe had standing stone

•Evidence that fishing very important (fish bones, shell fish, etc)
•Year round occupation
•Compare to Mesolithic (Europe), Archaic (New World)
Epipaleolithic& Naufianin the Near East
The Natufian culture was an Epipaleolithic culture that existed from 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean. It was unusual in that it was sedentary, or semi-sedentary, before the introduction of agriculture.

22,000 -11,600 years ago
Best known in the Levant -- Near the fertile crescent

Warming trend began earlier in Near East: Wild Wheat, Wild barley, and Legumes (beans?)
What is "artificial selection?"
B. Directed breeding of plants and animals that have characteristics deemed beneficial to humans.
Levant:
MUCH earlier change in settlement and subsistence
Began to harvest abundant plant food
New strategies for hunting small game (fox, hare, birds, fish, shell-fish)
Large species still hunted
Permanent or semi-permanent settlements
Ohalo 2 -- Israel 19,000 yrs ago:
The site was occupied during the Last Glacial Maximum

Ohalo II is remarkable in that, since it had been submerged, the preservation of organic materials was excellent, providing very rare evidence of food sources for late Upper Paleolithic/Epipaleolithic communities

Plants remains & animal bones show OhaloII occupied all year. REMARKABLE for such an early site.

Floors of 6 brush huts
Exterior hearths
Single grave
Ohalo 2 -diverse diet
Hundreds of thousands of fish bones + fish hooks
Bones of birds, fox, gazelle, deer, turtles
90,000 burned seeds, 142 species: acorns, wheat, barley, pistachios, berries, figs, grapes
65% of seeds -wheat & barley

Grinding stone with starch and grains in cracks

-- Possible bread oven?
What are lines of evidence tell archaeologists that plants are domesticated?
A.Plants are found in areas where they don't grow wild
B.Seeds are larger
C.Morphology of seeds (for example, thin seed coat)
D.All of the above

D
Natufian period 14,000 yrsago -9800 yrsago
Larger sites
More reliance on plant foods (evidence = more ground stone)
Bladelets with sickle gloss (for cutting grass)

Double row of blade segmentsin two-part goat horn handle
Ain Mallaha, Israel -- Natufian
Pit houses around open area

Very large for this period 2-300 people
A "village"
--Has primary burials and seconds burials

Evidence for year-round occupation:
stone houses
animals and plants taken all year
human commensals (house mice, rats, sparrows)
Storable grains, (although only a few storage pits ----maybe baskets?)

Wide variety of resources:
Grasses, nuts, fish, hunting, water fowl, etc

But few small-seeded grasses; mostly grasses with big seeds -wild wheat and barley
Tooth wear at Ain Mallaha
Dependence on wheat and barely:

--no more tooth wear than later Neolithic (so eating lots of ground cereals)
--used teeth as "third hand"

Basalt mortar from AinMallaha
Contributes to tooth wear?
Big & heavy -not tools to be moved often!
Ain Mallaha "Cemetery"
- Under floors abandoned houses
- Several people in common grave; others around them
-Few grave goods; some dead elaborately dressed
-Secondary burials
Prelude to Agriculture
Live near coast, lakes, rivers
Abundance and diversity of wild food
Often semi-permanent or permanent habitation
Cemeteries with some special burials = more complex social organization
Near East -changes MUCH earlier & rely on food that is later domesticated
The Neolithic Period : The development of agriculture
12,000 years ago -1000 years ago (variable times around the world)

Decline of Hunter-Gatherers
What is Domestication?
Plants and animals that rely on humans
Changes in physical characteristics
Not all species can be domesticated
Shrek the Sheep
Escaped being sheared for 6 years
Domesticated Landscapes (Terrell, et al 2003)
Stop looking for "earliest"
Focus on USE-domesticated or wild
Domesticated landscapes/niche construction = humans, plants, animals change the environment they live in
Forager to Farmer:
•No sharp break
•Humans use ALL resources
•People OFTEN manipulate "wild" species
E. Indonesia/W. Polynesia
Agroforestry:
Swidden agriculture?
Swidden agriculture, so farmers? •Agroforestry -actively manage forests
•increase biodiversity
•manage trees
•use forest for fuel, medicine, trade goods
Not farmers, not foragers -bit of both
Sedentism:
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness) simply refers to the practice of living in one place for a long time. The majority of the Western population belong to sedentary cultures.
Few Domestic Animals in N. America, but.....
Herd management -periodic round-ups
•Burning = food for grazing animals
•Moved animals to new habitats
•Animals captured & fattened
For Agriculture to Succeed....
Need package of domesticates (carbs and proteins)
What explanations does Feder offer for why agriculture was adopted by humans around the world?
C. No single prime cause, but different explanations in different parts of the world
Niche Construction in Jomon, Japan : proposed by who?
Peter Bleed (2010)
Niche construction is the process in which an organism alters its own (or other species') environment, often but not always in a manner that increases its chances of survival
•Stable lifestyle for 10,000 years
•No agriculture
Manipulated Plants and Animals
Human debris ---> shellfish population
Encouraged (cultivated?) chestnuts
Settlement disturbance = good for deer, boar
Boar moved to islands ---> herds
Why No Agriculture?
Domesticates must be able to live with people
Potential domesticates must outcompete other species for human attention
No species in Japan produced more food than fishing, hunting, gathering
Agriculture....
...NOT a Revolution
Mesolithic = deep knowledge of plants & animals
Where right plants and animals available,
manipulation ---> domestication
Consequences of Food Production:
More food feeds more people
Sedentary -decrease birth spacing
Good weaning foods -decrease birth spacing
Population Grows!!
New Settlement : Neolithic Village
Larger Social Groups ---> More Complex Social Organization
Agriculture requires:
New technology: Hoe, grinding stone, ax, digging sticks, plow, storage pits, ceramic vessels
Consequences of agriculture: Health and War
Dental caries
Nutritional stress
Less diverse diet
More births = more maternal deaths
Health Decline
Pseudoarchaeology:
refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the archaeological science community, which reject the accepted data gathering and analytical methods of the discipline.
Procrustean Argumentation:
enforcing uniformity or conformity without regard to natural variation or individuality
Peopling of Australia
Aborigines had wide range of sophisticated social structures; detailed mythology, oral history, and deep knowledge of natural surroundings. Traveled from Southeast Asia through Sunda and then into Sahul by watercraft through routes that are still debated today. These people arrived no earlier than 50,000 years ago.
DNA Evidence:
DNA Evidence - 2 specific mutations on the Y-chromosome of Native American males are also only found among people found in central Siberia. All 5 mtDNA groupings (haplogroups) found in native people of the New World can be traced to N.E. Asia.
Affluent Foreagers:
The wild food resource base in some areas is so rich and abundant, complexity may develop without the development of food production. The people who benefit and live off of this are affluent foragers.
What is a Complex Society?
Societies with social hierarchy

1 person or group of people w/ power over others
First Signs of Complex Society = Monumental Architecture : Which period did this mainly occur in?
Monumental architecture = large public structures; much labor
•Neolithic Period..... Or even before!!
Piling behavior:
gives form and purpose to society; give power to organizer
Gobekli Tepe
Ritual/Ceremonial Site begins 11,600 years ago!
Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site at the top of a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of modern-day Turkey

American archaeologist Peter Benedict identified it as being possibly neolithic and postulated that the Neolithic layers were topped by Byzantine and Islamic cemeteries. The survey noted numerous flints. Huge limestone slabs, upper parts of the T-shaped pillars, were thought to be grave markers.

Carved pillars: some have hands and seem to be "people".....but no heads

Images of wild, not domesticated, animals

Evidence of feasting
European Megaliths(Neolithic 6000-3500 yrs ago)
...
West Kennet Long Barrow, England
Corporate Burial Places?

Causewayed Enclosure (megalithic tombs built near these)
Colin Renfrew:
Megalithic monuments establish claims to land
What did archaeologists find at the archaeological site of Jericho (Israel) 9000 yrs ago that caused them to believe that a few people must have been coordinating the labor of many other people.
B.An enormous circular stone construction (6.5 feet thick) that surrounded the entire community
Henge Monuments (5000 yrs ago)
Big enclosures -"woodhenge" in center
Stonehenge:
Stonehenge: a "henge" monument5000 -4200 years ago

Stonehenge -Aligned with winter solstice sunset

Stonehenge -Land of the Dead?

Mike Parker Pearson
Amesbury Archer:
Amesbury Archer found 3 miles from Stonehenge
4300 years ago•
Man 35-45 yrs old
•Poor health•
Very rich burial

Teeth show he is from European Alps (Beaker culture)
•King of Stonehenge? Seeking healing?
•Second burial with same heel anomaly -Archer's son?
Woodhenge at Durrington Walls
Durrington Walls 4600-4500 yrs ago

Durrington Walls -Aligned with winter solstice sunrise

Home to people who used Stonehenge?

Durrington Walls -Land of the Living?
Megalithic Monuments
Concern with landscape and society's place in it
•Result of profound social changes in Neolithic
•MUST have been social hierarchy to organize building of monuments
Poverty Point, LA
3200 yrs ago
Astronomical structure

•Near Mississippi River trade routes•
Trade goods from Florida, Appalachian Mts., & Great Lakes (copper, slate, hemitite, lead, etc

Earthworks (places for habitation):
¾ mile in diameter
Ridges 150 feet apart, 6 feet high, 80 feet wide
Plaza area size of 4 football fields
1-2000 People living here

Bird Mound 70 ft. tall and 600 ft. long View solstice from mound + 2 outer mounds
Hopewell Culture
2200-1400 yrs ago
•Ohio River Valley & Midwest
•Large earthen mounds
•Small sites but elaborate trading network
•Emphasis on death & burial ritual


Hopewell Artifacts (hands, serpents, birds common

ex: Great Serpent Mound
Great Serpent Mound, Ohio
Monumental Architecture in Neolithic: Summary

Europe:

Gobleki Tepe & Eastern N. America
Europe: small farming villages (no cities, palaces, etc)
Built large monuments, so social hierarchy

Gobleki Tepe & Eastern N. America: still h/g, but some domesticated crops. Built large mounds, so social hierarchy
For complex societies to develop....
People have to AGREE to be governed
For States to Develop: You need what thing specifically?
Need Food Surplus
What Are the Characteristics of a State? (5)
Large Urban Populations
Stratified Societies
Formal Government
Labor specialization
Monumental Architecture
Which of the following describes the site of Poverty Point, Louisiana?
C.A semi-circular set of mounds built by hunter-gatherers. The site also includes a mound built in the shape of a bird.
Whydo States Develop?
Conflict Models:
States evolved to mediate conflict between the "haves" and "have-nots"

Integration models : ex: walls of jericho

Common to Both•leaders gain power by doing something useful (mediation, canals, defense)•diffs. in wealth & power must be legitimized
3 Sources of Power in Society
1.Economic
2.Military or coercive
3.Ideological
Definitions of Power
"A person may be said to have power to the extent that s/he influences the behavior of others in accordance with her/his own interests and intentions."
"A has power over B to the extent that s/he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do"
Hawaiian Islands
•settled 1600 years ago
•Farmers brought domesticated plants & animals (chicken & pigs)
•Rapid population growth
•Late 1700s -almost a state
Gaining Power in Hawaii
Gaining Military power: Warfare

•Ambitious person (A.P.) convinces people to build irrigation system
•A.P./chief oversees construction & maintenance of system
•Chief allots land to followers & makes them work some JUST FOR the chief!
•Chief's food > feasts for warriors & others
•Chief owns TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCING SURPLUS FOOD (irrigation canals) so people's labor

Warfare allowed chief to greatly extend area of control
Kamehameha I conquered almost all Hawaiian islands
Ideology Example:
Chiefs used gods to justify their wealth & power

God of Growth, Productivity, Rain
-- Chief becomes Lono during procession around island

Heiau: shows chief's ideological power
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