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Humanities Midterm

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The two geographical areas where civilization first began were located
in the Tigris-Euphrates river valley and in the Nile river valley
A consequence of the coming of the Neolithic period
Communities grew and became more complex
Mesoptamian religion may NOT be described as
ethical, or having deities that behave in moral ways towards their human subjects
Where the earliest primate ancestors of present-day humans probably originated
Eastern Africa
earliest civilization of Mesopotamia
Sumer
land between two rivers
Mesopotamia
Ice Age hominids lived in packs
Paleolithic
Sumer's great epic king
Gilgamesh
codified the laws in Babylon
Hammurabi
The first and greatest leader of the Akkadians
Sargon
The three successive civilizations that flourished in the Tigris-Euphrates area, in chronological order
Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian
takes on characteristics of a superhuman being
Main character in the epics
One of the primary traits of civilization
writing
The lawgiver for the Babylonians
Hammurabi
The typical religious structure in Mesopotamia
ziggurat
The Exaltation of Inanna recounts what
elevation of Inanna to supremacy among the gods
the sum of all human endeavors, the political, social, and economic institutions of a people, a people's values and beliefs
Culture
The Babylonian law code
code based on retaliation
One of the earliest surviving epics
Epic of Gilgamesh
One of the few women to become pharaoh in her own right
Hatshepsut
Persian Art was characterized by
contemplative themes with less action
left leg forward, fists clenched, unemotional countenance
The classical Egyptian style of sculpture
The era the pyramids were built in Egypt
only in the old kingdom
Signaled a political crisis
the appearance of a female ruler in Egypt
All of the following can be considered to have permanent features of Egyptian civilization
rulers who claimed to be divinities,the contstruction of elaborate tombs,the control of foreign trade by the rulers
Not a way Egypt was influenced by geography
Heavy rainfall made Upper Egypt the breadbasket of the country
Mesopotamia and Egypt's legacy to the West did not include what
the dome
Which was an aspect of the Amarna Revolution?
Aten was raised to a new level above the other deities
The model for the step pyramid of King Djoser
borrowed from the Mesopotamian ziggurat
Lybia ruled Egypt until Persian Invasion
Late Dynastic Period
pictographs which could depict concepts
hieroglyphs
civil war and starvation
First Intermediate Period
The cultural significance of the pyramid
It seemed to embody a constant and eternal order.
rulers claimed to be gods on earth
Early Dynasty
500 hundred years of prosperity
Old Kingdom
shape embodied eternal order
pyramid
state ruled by gods
theocracy
many divinities
pantheism
age of chaos provoked by failure of Nile to flood
Second Intermediate Period
to house the spirit of a person or deity.
The purpose of art in Egyptian culture
This female pharaoh built a temple at Deir el Bahri, near Luxor
Hatshepsut
The most famous work of Egyptian literature
The Story of Sinuhe
Egyptian religion was not characterized by
a single national deity for the state
an open area market place or city center
Agora
Minoan civilization eventually fell to
Mycenaens
Minoan art reveals what Cretan religious practice
worship of a mother goddess
Homer's writings drew on legends of
Myceneaean civilization
A frequent subject in Archaic Greek sculpture
youths and maidens
Mycenaean civilization transmitted which legacy to Archaic Greece
legends and myths of gods and heroes
Sappho's lyric poetry was mainly on the subject of
passionate love in all of its aspects
Sequence to describe govermental shifts in a typical polis during the Archaic Age
oligarchy to tyranny to democracy
Odysseus's efforts to return home
Odyssey
The Archaic Greeks laid the foundation for Western civilization by
originating the spirit of scientific inquiry
An Egyptian influence on Archaic Greek sculpture
left foot forward movement
Pythagoras was author of which scientific theory
the belief tahat everything is based on numbers
Who is the originator of the epic tradition
Homer
an aristocrat who reformed Athenian society
Solon
The Archaic Greeks called their land what
Hellas
Who was the first philosopher/scientist
Thales
NOT an aspect of Minoan civilization
Its cities were ringed with massive walls.
Unlike Egyptian style, the Archaic style was characterized by
a slight smile on the face
Which cultural institution grew out of the worship of Dionysis
theatre
The rest of Greece admired Sparta for its
military might
Who was considered to be the leader of the Greek deities
Zeus
Aristotle's Poetics claims that the purpose of tragedy is to
bring about a catharsis
A colloquial form of Greek
Koine
Mythical parent who gave birth to the tribes of Greece
Hellen
Female follower of Dionysus
Maenads
Spiritual values are the basis of truth
Idealism
Pride which contributes to the fall of a hero
Hubris
The central temple of the Acropolis
Parthenon
Believed to serve ethical and educational functions in the Greek culture
Music
The essence of classicism is to
strive toward perfection, an ideal form
Argued that knowledge is derived from studying the material word
Aristotle
show motion in a static medium
High Classical sculptural style
Plato's most important contribtion to Western Philosophy
founding the school of idealism
Included Egypt as its capital
Ptolemaic kingdom
One of the ideals the Greeks strived for
balance or moderation in life
Early Greek society named after legendary king
Minoan
Early metaphysical philosophers
Pre-Socrates
Gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus
Olympian deities
Who was Athens dominated by at the height of its power
Pericles
Two gods that manifes the extremes of moderation and excess
Apollo and Dionysus
Socrates was accused of
corrupting the youth of Athens
What stoic idea was adopted into early Christianity
the universal kinship of humanity
The Christian belief that was adopted from early Judaism
God demands social justice for all people
What emporer reformed the Roman Empire in the late third century
Diocletian
What do Paul's letters constitute
the first Christian theology
Where did Christianity begin
Judea
The first patriarch to settle in Canaan
Abraham
What was the early Christian paintings and sculptures used to decorate
underground burial chambers and tombs
A major source for the life of Jesus
the Gospels
The three kings of the Kingdom of Israel
Saul, David, Solomon
An agreement
Covenant
The shape of the floor plan of many Christian churches
cruciform
Means dispersion
diaspora
The oldest copy of the Jewish scriptures
Dead Sea Scrolls
When were the Dead Sea Scrolls first found
1947
What two religions did the belief of Judaism help to shape
Christianity and Islam
The early Christians who asserted that Jesus was similar but not identical with God advocated a belief known as
Arianism
Why did Christianity appeal to many
it recognized the spiritual worth of the poor
Two civilizations that gravely threatened the ancient Jews
Hellenistic and Roman
Earliest emporer to convert to Christianity
Constantine
Most famous epic poet in Roman literature
Vergil
Frequent subject of Roman paintings
Greek and Roman myths
One of the important traits of the Roman religion
it accepted other cults, blending them into new ways of worship
Who did the Roman artists and writers borrow most from
Greeks
What two things is Cicero famed for
philosophical writings and letters
What is NOT a cause of the the collapse of the Roman republic
the revolts in the provinces
What did NOT occur under the Pax Romana
the power of the army drastically increased
How did the Early Republic of Rome transform their political system
from a kingship to a republic
One social group that gained power under Augustus
equestrian order