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The two geographical areas where civilization first began were located

in the Tigris-Euphrates river valley and in the Nile river valley

A consequence of the coming of the Neolithic period

Communities grew and became more complex

Mesoptamian religion may NOT be described as

ethical, or having deities that behave in moral ways towards their human subjects

Where the earliest primate ancestors of present-day humans probably originated

Eastern Africa

earliest civilization of Mesopotamia


land between two rivers


Ice Age hominids lived in packs


Sumer's great epic king


codified the laws in Babylon


The first and greatest leader of the Akkadians


The three successive civilizations that flourished in the Tigris-Euphrates area, in chronological order

Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian

takes on characteristics of a superhuman being

Main character in the epics

One of the primary traits of civilization


The lawgiver for the Babylonians


The typical religious structure in Mesopotamia


The Exaltation of Inanna recounts what

elevation of Inanna to supremacy among the gods

the sum of all human endeavors, the political, social, and economic institutions of a people, a people's values and beliefs


The Babylonian law code

code based on retaliation

One of the earliest surviving epics

Epic of Gilgamesh

One of the few women to become pharaoh in her own right


Persian Art was characterized by

contemplative themes with less action

left leg forward, fists clenched, unemotional countenance

The classical Egyptian style of sculpture

The era the pyramids were built in Egypt

only in the old kingdom

Signaled a political crisis

the appearance of a female ruler in Egypt

All of the following can be considered to have permanent features of Egyptian civilization

rulers who claimed to be divinities,the contstruction of elaborate tombs,the control of foreign trade by the rulers

Not a way Egypt was influenced by geography

Heavy rainfall made Upper Egypt the breadbasket of the country

Mesopotamia and Egypt's legacy to the West did not include what

the dome

Which was an aspect of the Amarna Revolution?

Aten was raised to a new level above the other deities

The model for the step pyramid of King Djoser

borrowed from the Mesopotamian ziggurat

Lybia ruled Egypt until Persian Invasion

Late Dynastic Period

pictographs which could depict concepts


civil war and starvation

First Intermediate Period

The cultural significance of the pyramid

It seemed to embody a constant and eternal order.

rulers claimed to be gods on earth

Early Dynasty

500 hundred years of prosperity

Old Kingdom

shape embodied eternal order


state ruled by gods


many divinities


age of chaos provoked by failure of Nile to flood

Second Intermediate Period

to house the spirit of a person or deity.

The purpose of art in Egyptian culture

This female pharaoh built a temple at Deir el Bahri, near Luxor


The most famous work of Egyptian literature

The Story of Sinuhe

Egyptian religion was not characterized by

a single national deity for the state

an open area market place or city center


Minoan civilization eventually fell to


Minoan art reveals what Cretan religious practice

worship of a mother goddess

Homer's writings drew on legends of

Myceneaean civilization

A frequent subject in Archaic Greek sculpture

youths and maidens

Mycenaean civilization transmitted which legacy to Archaic Greece

legends and myths of gods and heroes

Sappho's lyric poetry was mainly on the subject of

passionate love in all of its aspects

Sequence to describe govermental shifts in a typical polis during the Archaic Age

oligarchy to tyranny to democracy

Odysseus's efforts to return home


The Archaic Greeks laid the foundation for Western civilization by

originating the spirit of scientific inquiry

An Egyptian influence on Archaic Greek sculpture

left foot forward movement

Pythagoras was author of which scientific theory

the belief tahat everything is based on numbers

Who is the originator of the epic tradition


an aristocrat who reformed Athenian society


The Archaic Greeks called their land what


Who was the first philosopher/scientist


NOT an aspect of Minoan civilization

Its cities were ringed with massive walls.

Unlike Egyptian style, the Archaic style was characterized by

a slight smile on the face

Which cultural institution grew out of the worship of Dionysis


The rest of Greece admired Sparta for its

military might

Who was considered to be the leader of the Greek deities


Aristotle's Poetics claims that the purpose of tragedy is to

bring about a catharsis

A colloquial form of Greek


Mythical parent who gave birth to the tribes of Greece


Female follower of Dionysus


Spiritual values are the basis of truth


Pride which contributes to the fall of a hero


The central temple of the Acropolis


Believed to serve ethical and educational functions in the Greek culture


The essence of classicism is to

strive toward perfection, an ideal form

Argued that knowledge is derived from studying the material word


show motion in a static medium

High Classical sculptural style

Plato's most important contribtion to Western Philosophy

founding the school of idealism

Included Egypt as its capital

Ptolemaic kingdom

One of the ideals the Greeks strived for

balance or moderation in life

Early Greek society named after legendary king


Early metaphysical philosophers


Gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus

Olympian deities

Who was Athens dominated by at the height of its power


Two gods that manifes the extremes of moderation and excess

Apollo and Dionysus

Socrates was accused of

corrupting the youth of Athens

What stoic idea was adopted into early Christianity

the universal kinship of humanity

The Christian belief that was adopted from early Judaism

God demands social justice for all people

What emporer reformed the Roman Empire in the late third century


What do Paul's letters constitute

the first Christian theology

Where did Christianity begin


The first patriarch to settle in Canaan


What was the early Christian paintings and sculptures used to decorate

underground burial chambers and tombs

A major source for the life of Jesus

the Gospels

The three kings of the Kingdom of Israel

Saul, David, Solomon

An agreement


The shape of the floor plan of many Christian churches


Means dispersion


The oldest copy of the Jewish scriptures

Dead Sea Scrolls

When were the Dead Sea Scrolls first found


What two religions did the belief of Judaism help to shape

Christianity and Islam

The early Christians who asserted that Jesus was similar but not identical with God advocated a belief known as


Why did Christianity appeal to many

it recognized the spiritual worth of the poor

Two civilizations that gravely threatened the ancient Jews

Hellenistic and Roman

Earliest emporer to convert to Christianity


Most famous epic poet in Roman literature


Frequent subject of Roman paintings

Greek and Roman myths

One of the important traits of the Roman religion

it accepted other cults, blending them into new ways of worship

Who did the Roman artists and writers borrow most from


What two things is Cicero famed for

philosophical writings and letters

What is NOT a cause of the the collapse of the Roman republic

the revolts in the provinces

What did NOT occur under the Pax Romana

the power of the army drastically increased

How did the Early Republic of Rome transform their political system

from a kingship to a republic

One social group that gained power under Augustus

equestrian order

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