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summer intercession. Erwin.

children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.

Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 & 7 years are in a state called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that ________.

reducing poverty & improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and health services.

according to the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by _______.

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

an overwhelming worldwide health concern in the last decade has been death as a result of _______.

slightly smaller.

during early childhood, on average, girls are ______ than boys.

her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.

six-year-old tracy was a witness to a robbery and has been asked to testify at trial. The defense will argue that her testimony is invalid because ___.


developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarden level are likely to be ___.

the frontal lobe.

between ages 3 and 6 years, which part of the brain grows the fastest?

other people

Vygotsky DIFFERS from Jean Piaget in how he stresses the relative importance of ____ for cognitive development.

more socially competent.

Vygotsky believed that children who frequently use private speech are ___.

understand that this is normal.

her pediatrician has just told Karly that her 4-year-old son, Manuel, has gained 6 pounds in the last year. Karly should ___.

non child-centered.

The kindergarten director says, "We believe that there is a specific set of skills children need to do well in first grade, and we make sure the children learn those skills in our kindergarten. We spend as little time as possible on social and physical things and concentrate on teaching them the facts. If children aren't keeping up, we provide them with extra opportunities to practice until they learn the material." This kindergarten program is ___.

be slightly shorter in height than if Melinda had not smoked.

Melinda smokes cigarettes during pregnancy. Because of her smoking, we would expect her child, when preschool age, to ___.

too much emphasis on achievement.

In general, critics of contemporary kindergartens believe that many kindergartens place ___.

Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.

Which of the following describes what Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?

the meaningfulness of words.

what is morphology?

salient; relevant

Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _____ and more attention to what is _____.

take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping them.

As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they ___.


Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. The mother breaks Stephie's cookie into 4 pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of ___.

are irrelevant for the total movement.

In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement ___.

fine motor skills.

Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed ___.

evidencing centration.

For Piaget, failing a conservation task indicates that the child is ___.

fear (look this one up)

Which of the following emotions are NOT in the same "category" as the other three?

moral reasoning; moral behavior

Piaget's approach to studying morality focuses on _____, whereas the behavioral approach focuses on _________.


According to Erikson, what is the "great governor" of initiative?

emphasize delaying gratification.

Compared to working class parents, upper-middle-class parents are more likely to ___.


In general terms, the preschool child's understanding of self is ___.

authoritarian parent.

A parent who uses a restrictive, punitive style to control the behavior of their children is an ___.

none of these. (look up)

How does maternal employment outside of the home affect children?


A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual's perception is called a ___.

initiative versus guilt.

According to Erikson, the psychological stage that characterizes early childhood is ___.

both their father and their mother to an equal extent.

As Maria and Salvatore grow up, who is more likely to treat them differently because of their sex?

United States.

Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single parent families?

imminent justice.

Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is referred to as belief in ___.

moral development.

The development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people is called ___.

emotion-dismissing parent.

A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called an ___.

the same sex.

Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made of ___.

inequities in the distribution of power and access to resources are the primary cause of psychological and behavioral gender differences between men and women.

The social role theory of gender differences suggests that ___.


The _____ theory of gender holds that gender development is governed by a child's attraction to his or her opposite-sex parent.


Which of the parenting styles has low demands and high responsiveness?

neglectful parent.

Ben brought home his report card and placed it on the tv. Ben told his dad that he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with a signature. Ben's dad told him to move out of the way because he couldn't see the TV. The next morning, Ben found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad's name and put it in his backpack. Ben's dad is most likely a ___.


When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting

critical thinking.

Listening carefully, identifying and formulating questions, and organizing thoughts are all part of ___.

mildly retarded.

Paul has an IQ of 68. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. he has no difficulty adapting to everyday life. According to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is ___.

a combination of medication and behavior management.

Recent research suggests that ______ is the most effective treatment of ADHD.

a complex concept that includes many different aspects.

The concept of intelligence has proven to be so difficult to define because it is ___.

133 (how to do this?)

Sally's mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally's IQ is ___.

2 to 3

On average, children grow ____ inches per year during middle and late childhood.

physical damage to brain tissues.

Organic retardation is caused by ___.

eat more vegetables and drink less sodas.

Children who eat dinner with their families are more likely to ___.


What percentage of children who are obese at age 12 also will be obese as adults?


The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems is called ___.

learing disability.

ADHD is a type of ___.


Standardized testing in schools typically measures _______ thinking.

verbal intelligence. (look up)

Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence includes all of the following EXCEPT ___.

They should be considered one aspect of a person's whole range of talents.

Which of the following is the MOST appropriate use of intelligence test results?


_____ is characterized by severe impairments in reading and spelling ability.


To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children must be able to use the skill of ___.


Although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, he has street smarts. According to Sternberg, he has _____ intelligence.


Cancer is the _______ leading cause of death in children.


What type of cancer is most prevalent in children?


Compared to girls, boys are ___ times more likely to be classified as having a learning disability.

the ability to think abstractly.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought?

5 to 7

On average, children gain ___ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.

intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.

Sternberg's triarchic theory and Gardner's theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that ___.

an individuated education plan (IEP)

The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that students with disabilities receive ___.


A gifted child has an IQ of _____ or higher.

preoperational; concrete operational

Jack is cutting up a pizza for himself and his brother Craig. He starts to cut it into 8 pieces, but Craig says "Don't cut it into so many pieces, I can't eat that many." Jack laughs but obeys.

Craig's reactions characterize __________ thought, and Jack's reactions characterize _________ thought.


Which of the following terms refers to self-evaluations in the different domains of an individual's life?


Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as ___.

industry versus inferiority

Erikson's fourth stage of development, appearing during middle and late childhood, is called


Which of the following would probably be the MOST developmentally appropriate type of discipline tactic for an 11 year old?


A person is arrested for stealing company documents and says "Yes, I did steal the documents and I am willing to go to jail for it. These documents prove that the company was engaging in a cover-up of the unsafe properties of its chemical. I think the public has a right to know about it." Kohlberg would classify this as _________ morality.

they perform competently on a task they care about.

Children have the highest self-esteem when ___.

unidimensional; bidimensional.

Traditional masculine and feminine gender roles are _________, whereas androgyny is _________.

classifying children's solutions to difficult moral problems.

Kohlberg studied moral development by ___.

physically; verbally

Boys are more ________ aggressive, whereas girls are more ___________ aggressive.

girls engage in more prosocial behavior.

Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that ___.

It's not what one thinks, but what one does that is the most important for morality.

Which of the following statements represents a criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

social and behavioral consequences of leaving children home alone after school.

The "three to six o'clock problem" refers to the ___.

physical characteristics.

During the elementary years, a child's self-understanding includes increasing reference to all of the following, EXCEPT ___.

teaching a child a new skill

Which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement?

"I am nice, and I have a friend named Julie."

How would an 8 year old child MOST likely describe himself or herself?


Bianca is a "bully" and no one likes to play with her. Bianca's sociometric status is PROBABLY ___.

rejected; neglected

__________ children often have more psychosocial difficulties later in life than _________ children.

global; domain-specific

Self-esteem is to ______ self-evaluation as self-concept is to _______ self-evaluation.

improving the children's attention-seeking and communication skills.

Training programs for children rejected by their peers focus on ___.

that for many people, moral belief does not predict moral behavior.

More than 80% of the respondents to a survey said that buying a stolen TV set is morally wrong. Yet 50% admitted they would by a stolen set if guaranteed they would not be caught. These data indicate ___.


Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of ___.

increased levels of delinquency.

In several studies, a positive correlation was found between boys who were both rejected by their peers and aggressive in elementary school and __________ when they were adolescents and young adults.

Thinning/Graying hair



Loss of eye-sight

Brittle fingernails

Weight gain

Loss of smell

More fat, less muscle

SHORT ANSWER: List 5 physical changes in middle and late adulthood.

Going to college: deciding to go will increase your chances of getting a higher paying job. Not going decreases this.

Healthy eating habits: Eating habits are est early in life. If you don't have good ones when you're younger, it's harder to eat better later.

SHORT ANSWER: What do you have to look at when you make decisions in early adulthood that would affect you in middle and late adulthood. What you do when you're young sets the stage for how you will be when you're an adult. Example and follow up.

1. Nature/Nurture: how much of who we are is determined by genetics or environment.

2. Continuity/Discontinuity: Discontinuity- we develop in distinct levels. Stairs.
Continuity- we get better at processing things, straight line.

3. Stability/Change:
Stability- once we get through early developmental periods, we'll be stable.
Change- we can still change into adulthood.

SHORT ANSWER: 3 main issues in life-span development. understand both sides of the debate.

Chronological: years elapsed since birth

Social: age in terms of society's roles/expectations

Psychological: adaptive capacity compared with others in chronological age (maturity)

Biological: health

Biological/Chronological: Smoking at a young age would make you age faster biologically than someone with your same chronological age

Psychological/Chronological: Irresponsibility/ Lack of life experiences may make someone seem mentally younger than their chrono age. Also mental retardation.

SHORT ANSWER: Age (Chronological, Social, Psychological, Biological).
Give definitions, explain how they're congruent.


the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.

Characteristics of development

Multidimensional (physical, cognitive, socio-emotional)

Multidirectional (some things increase as others decrease)

Multidisciplinary (Many fields contribute to knowledge)

Plasticity (capacity for change)

Contextual (everything happens in context)

Contextually graded

Normative age-graded: happen to everyone at certain ages

Normative history-graded: happen to cohorts because they live during the same time

Non-normative: specific events that happen to an individual.

Life expectancy: how long you can expect to live based on the year you were born (78 now. Women live longer)

Life Span: how long a species can live under ideal circumstances (120-125. Stayed the same)

Life expectancy vs Life span

Which one changes?

Denial: It can't be me

Anger: Why me?!

Bargaining: Just let me do this one thing.

Depression: Withdrawal, crying

Acceptance: Sense of peace

Kuhler-Ross' 5 stages of dying are?

Higher cortex, then lower.

Which part of the brain shuts down first?

have slow onset and long duration.

Emphysema, Arthritis, Heart disease

Chronic disorders

(give definition and examples)

When all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specific period of time.

When is a person considered brain dead?

Trust vs Mistrust // Infancy- First year

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt // Infancy- 1-3 years

Initiative vs Guilt // Early Childhood- 3-5 years

Industry vs Inferiority // Middle, Late childhood 6-Puberty

Identity vs Identity confusion // Adolescence- 10-20 years

Intimacy vs Isolation // Early Adulthood- 20s, 30s

Generativity vs Stagnation // Middle Adulthood- 40s, 50s

Integrity vs Despair // Late Adulthood- 60s+

Erikson's 8 stages

(name of stage and age)

Emerging adulthood.

18-25. Idea that going into adulthood is a process, not an event. Doesn't happen overnight, but is a long drawn out process.


group of people born around the same time.

cohort effects.

experience the same history-graded things because of time period.

Advanced directives/ Living will

documents that allow you to announce your wishes. You don't have to be terminally ill to write one.
(normally you have to have a clear mind)

Prenatal death- miscarriage

Infancy- SIDS

Childhood- accidents or illness then leukemia.

Adolescent/ Young adulthood- suicide, homicide, auto accidents

Middle/Late adulthood- chronic diseases, cancer

Leading causes of death from the whole life span

(top 2 from each developmental period)

Medicine improvements have changed the concept of death.

Keep people alive on life support.

Today its harder to tell someone is dying because ___.

passive euthanasia

withdrawing something from a person's situation to cause death. (Pulling plug/feeding tube)

active euthanasia

adding something to a person's situation to cause death. (suffocation)


act of painlessly ending the lives of individuals who are suffering from an incurable disease or severe disability.


a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible. Makes every effort to include the dying patient's family members. Includes home-based programs today, supplemented with care for medical needs and staff.

palliative care

reducing pain and suffering, helping individuals die with dignity. Education and support for the family even after the person passes.

Care: hospice approach. Spends time making you comfortable during your time left.

Cure: doctor approach. Doing everything they can to keep you alive for as long as possible.

Care vs. Cure

Which one does hospice focus on?

1. Amygdala develops: processing information about emotions

2. Corpus coloseum thickens and grows stronger: improves adolescents' ability to process information; complex thinking

3. Frontal lobe develops: thinking and decision making

3 major changes in cognition and brain development in adolescence

heightened self-consciousness of adolescents

1. Imaginary audience: adolescents' belief that others are as interest in them as they are of themselves

2. Personal fable: involves a sense of uniqueness and invincibility

Adolescence egocentrism (2 parts)

prolonged grief

grief lasting from 6 months to 2 years

Disfranchised grief

can't outwardly express grief because of a certain situation (mistress, etc)

ambiguous loss

not having a body results in ___.

-Hormones during prenatal development

-Roles we're socialized into

-Genetic component (environment, genetics)

It's still unsure though.

Sexual orientation- What causes us to be gay or straight?

Old model: Idea that adolescence is the most important stage of development. Storm and stress model.

New model: much more positive.

2 Views of adolescence are?

eclectic theory

takes the best parts of all of the other theories and combines them. No theory can completely explain everything about development.

midlife crisis

Early research: common; based on age

New research: not common; happens because of stress not age. May affect one dimension of life but not all.

cross-sectional research

looking at people in a certain age group and comparing them to people in other age groups, all at the same time.

- Disadvantages: find age related differences but not changes

-Advantages: costs less, faster results

social clock

time period in which you're supposed to have things done according to society, for your certain age.

-Has changed over time

-More flexible now than 50 years ago

longitudinal research

looking at the same people over time

- Disadvantage: long time to get results

-Advantage: figures out age-related changes

Adolescence/Early adulthood: height up, weight up

Middle adulthood: height down, weight up

Late adulthood: height down, weight down

Physical gains in height and weight over the lifespan

looks at current life events/experiences and mediating factors. Development based on your events, not age.

- Widowed: same experiences as other widows

-Mediating factors: being widowed at an old age; length of time married

Contemporary life event approach

1. Free Radical Theory: byproduct of metabolism; trap your antioxidants

2. Cellular clock theory: cells are programmed to divide only a certain number of times

3. Hormonal stress theory: aging lowers resistance to stress and increase likelihood of disease

4. Mitochondrial theory: aging due to decay of mitochondria

Biological Theories of Aging

Increased cognitive function/stimulation

Physical benefits

Releases stress (mental health)

Can slow down age-related processes

Benefits of physical exercise in late adulthood

Activity Theory: the more active and involved older adults are, the more they'll be satisfied

Disengagement: pull out of your old habits- not a good theory today

Socioemotional Selectivity Theory: older adults become more selective about their social networks, spend more time with those in rewarding relationships

Social theories of aging

Knowledge-related: when time is perceived as open ended

Emotional: happen when it is perceived that less time is left

Knowledge-related vs Emotional goals

adults in middle adulthood are forced to have to take on the responsibilities of their own parents as well as their children.

Sandwich "squeeze" generation


Anorexic people use food as a means of ___.

it is a gradual process involving multiple distinguishing events.

It is difficult to know exactly when puberty begins and ends because ___.

Imaginary audience

Juanita, a 15 year old high school student, is afraid to go to school because of a small pimple on her forehead. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?

Testosterone; estradiol

________ is the dominant hormone in males, whereas _________ is the dominant hormone in females.

an accident

In the US, an adolescent is most likely to die from

increased penis size.

Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the boys that they are likely to experience FIRST?

genital-genital contact, oral-genital contact, and anal-genital contact.

Research indicates that Sexually Transmitted Infections can be contracted through ___.


The period of biological change that takes place during early adolescence is called ___.


Anorexia and bulimia affect women or men more?

bulimia nervosa

Jordan has a passion for food that leads her to gorge. However, after she gorges, she "compensates" by running as many as 10 miles and sometimes making herself vomit. She most likely has ___.


Which of the following contraceptives DO provide protection against STIs?

prefrontal cortex

The ability to plan, set priorities, suppress impulses, and weigh consequences is weak in adolescence because the _________ is the last part to mature.

Anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder that can result in death by starvation

anorexia nervosa

Jackie's doctor is concerned that she is losing too much weight. However, Jackie thinks her legs are "too fat" and continues dieting. Jackie is at risk for developing ___.

adults have a more completely developed frontal lobe.

Adolescents tend to respond with "gut" reactions to emotional stimuli, while adults are more likely to respond rationally. This may be because ___.

older than the average age for menarche in the US. (what is the average?)

Samantha is currently living in the US. She was 14 1/2 years old when she experienced menarche. Samantha is ___.

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