272 terms

psyc 2070 final

summer intercession. Erwin.
children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.
Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 & 7 years are in a state called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that ________.
reducing poverty & improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and health services.
according to the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by _______.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
an overwhelming worldwide health concern in the last decade has been death as a result of _______.
slightly smaller.
during early childhood, on average, girls are ______ than boys.
her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
six-year-old tracy was a witness to a robbery and has been asked to testify at trial. The defense will argue that her testimony is invalid because ___.
developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarden level are likely to be ___.
the frontal lobe.
between ages 3 and 6 years, which part of the brain grows the fastest?
other people
Vygotsky DIFFERS from Jean Piaget in how he stresses the relative importance of ____ for cognitive development.
more socially competent.
Vygotsky believed that children who frequently use private speech are ___.
understand that this is normal.
her pediatrician has just told Karly that her 4-year-old son, Manuel, has gained 6 pounds in the last year. Karly should ___.
non child-centered.
The kindergarten director says, "We believe that there is a specific set of skills children need to do well in first grade, and we make sure the children learn those skills in our kindergarten. We spend as little time as possible on social and physical things and concentrate on teaching them the facts. If children aren't keeping up, we provide them with extra opportunities to practice until they learn the material." This kindergarten program is ___.
be slightly shorter in height than if Melinda had not smoked.
Melinda smokes cigarettes during pregnancy. Because of her smoking, we would expect her child, when preschool age, to ___.
too much emphasis on achievement.
In general, critics of contemporary kindergartens believe that many kindergartens place ___.
Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
Which of the following describes what Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?
the meaningfulness of words.
what is morphology?
salient; relevant
Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _____ and more attention to what is _____.
take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping them.
As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they ___.
Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. The mother breaks Stephie's cookie into 4 pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of ___.
are irrelevant for the total movement.
In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement ___.
fine motor skills.
Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed ___.
evidencing centration.
For Piaget, failing a conservation task indicates that the child is ___.
fear (look this one up)
Which of the following emotions are NOT in the same "category" as the other three?
moral reasoning; moral behavior
Piaget's approach to studying morality focuses on _____, whereas the behavioral approach focuses on _________.
According to Erikson, what is the "great governor" of initiative?
emphasize delaying gratification.
Compared to working class parents, upper-middle-class parents are more likely to ___.
In general terms, the preschool child's understanding of self is ___.
authoritarian parent.
A parent who uses a restrictive, punitive style to control the behavior of their children is an ___.
none of these. (look up)
How does maternal employment outside of the home affect children?
A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual's perception is called a ___.
initiative versus guilt.
According to Erikson, the psychological stage that characterizes early childhood is ___.
both their father and their mother to an equal extent.
As Maria and Salvatore grow up, who is more likely to treat them differently because of their sex?
United States.
Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single parent families?
imminent justice.
Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is referred to as belief in ___.
moral development.
The development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people is called ___.
emotion-dismissing parent.
A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called an ___.
the same sex.
Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made of ___.
inequities in the distribution of power and access to resources are the primary cause of psychological and behavioral gender differences between men and women.
The social role theory of gender differences suggests that ___.
The _____ theory of gender holds that gender development is governed by a child's attraction to his or her opposite-sex parent.
Which of the parenting styles has low demands and high responsiveness?
neglectful parent.
Ben brought home his report card and placed it on the tv. Ben told his dad that he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with a signature. Ben's dad told him to move out of the way because he couldn't see the TV. The next morning, Ben found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad's name and put it in his backpack. Ben's dad is most likely a ___.
When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting
critical thinking.
Listening carefully, identifying and formulating questions, and organizing thoughts are all part of ___.
mildly retarded.
Paul has an IQ of 68. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. he has no difficulty adapting to everyday life. According to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is ___.
a combination of medication and behavior management.
Recent research suggests that ______ is the most effective treatment of ADHD.
a complex concept that includes many different aspects.
The concept of intelligence has proven to be so difficult to define because it is ___.
133 (how to do this?)
Sally's mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally's IQ is ___.
2 to 3
On average, children grow ____ inches per year during middle and late childhood.
physical damage to brain tissues.
Organic retardation is caused by ___.
eat more vegetables and drink less sodas.
Children who eat dinner with their families are more likely to ___.
What percentage of children who are obese at age 12 also will be obese as adults?
The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems is called ___.
learing disability.
ADHD is a type of ___.
Standardized testing in schools typically measures _______ thinking.
verbal intelligence. (look up)
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence includes all of the following EXCEPT ___.
They should be considered one aspect of a person's whole range of talents.
Which of the following is the MOST appropriate use of intelligence test results?
_____ is characterized by severe impairments in reading and spelling ability.
To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children must be able to use the skill of ___.
Although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, he has street smarts. According to Sternberg, he has _____ intelligence.
Cancer is the _______ leading cause of death in children.
What type of cancer is most prevalent in children?
Compared to girls, boys are ___ times more likely to be classified as having a learning disability.
the ability to think abstractly.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought?
5 to 7
On average, children gain ___ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.
intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
Sternberg's triarchic theory and Gardner's theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that ___.
an individuated education plan (IEP)
The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that students with disabilities receive ___.
A gifted child has an IQ of _____ or higher.
preoperational; concrete operational
Jack is cutting up a pizza for himself and his brother Craig. He starts to cut it into 8 pieces, but Craig says "Don't cut it into so many pieces, I can't eat that many." Jack laughs but obeys.

Craig's reactions characterize __________ thought, and Jack's reactions characterize _________ thought.
Which of the following terms refers to self-evaluations in the different domains of an individual's life?
Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as ___.
industry versus inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage of development, appearing during middle and late childhood, is called
Which of the following would probably be the MOST developmentally appropriate type of discipline tactic for an 11 year old?
A person is arrested for stealing company documents and says "Yes, I did steal the documents and I am willing to go to jail for it. These documents prove that the company was engaging in a cover-up of the unsafe properties of its chemical. I think the public has a right to know about it." Kohlberg would classify this as _________ morality.
they perform competently on a task they care about.
Children have the highest self-esteem when ___.
unidimensional; bidimensional.
Traditional masculine and feminine gender roles are _________, whereas androgyny is _________.
classifying children's solutions to difficult moral problems.
Kohlberg studied moral development by ___.
physically; verbally
Boys are more ________ aggressive, whereas girls are more ___________ aggressive.
girls engage in more prosocial behavior.
Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that ___.
It's not what one thinks, but what one does that is the most important for morality.
Which of the following statements represents a criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
social and behavioral consequences of leaving children home alone after school.
The "three to six o'clock problem" refers to the ___.
physical characteristics.
During the elementary years, a child's self-understanding includes increasing reference to all of the following, EXCEPT ___.
teaching a child a new skill
Which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement?
"I am nice, and I have a friend named Julie."
How would an 8 year old child MOST likely describe himself or herself?
Bianca is a "bully" and no one likes to play with her. Bianca's sociometric status is PROBABLY ___.
rejected; neglected
__________ children often have more psychosocial difficulties later in life than _________ children.
global; domain-specific
Self-esteem is to ______ self-evaluation as self-concept is to _______ self-evaluation.
improving the children's attention-seeking and communication skills.
Training programs for children rejected by their peers focus on ___.
that for many people, moral belief does not predict moral behavior.
More than 80% of the respondents to a survey said that buying a stolen TV set is morally wrong. Yet 50% admitted they would by a stolen set if guaranteed they would not be caught. These data indicate ___.
Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of ___.
increased levels of delinquency.
In several studies, a positive correlation was found between boys who were both rejected by their peers and aggressive in elementary school and __________ when they were adolescents and young adults.
Thinning/Graying hair



Loss of eye-sight

Brittle fingernails

Weight gain

Loss of smell

More fat, less muscle
SHORT ANSWER: List 5 physical changes in middle and late adulthood.
Going to college: deciding to go will increase your chances of getting a higher paying job. Not going decreases this.

Healthy eating habits: Eating habits are est early in life. If you don't have good ones when you're younger, it's harder to eat better later.
SHORT ANSWER: What do you have to look at when you make decisions in early adulthood that would affect you in middle and late adulthood. What you do when you're young sets the stage for how you will be when you're an adult. Example and follow up.
1. Nature/Nurture: how much of who we are is determined by genetics or environment.

2. Continuity/Discontinuity: Discontinuity- we develop in distinct levels. Stairs.
Continuity- we get better at processing things, straight line.

3. Stability/Change:
Stability- once we get through early developmental periods, we'll be stable.
Change- we can still change into adulthood.
SHORT ANSWER: 3 main issues in life-span development. understand both sides of the debate.
Chronological: years elapsed since birth

Social: age in terms of society's roles/expectations

Psychological: adaptive capacity compared with others in chronological age (maturity)

Biological: health

Biological/Chronological: Smoking at a young age would make you age faster biologically than someone with your same chronological age

Psychological/Chronological: Irresponsibility/ Lack of life experiences may make someone seem mentally younger than their chrono age. Also mental retardation.
SHORT ANSWER: Age (Chronological, Social, Psychological, Biological).
Give definitions, explain how they're congruent.
the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
Characteristics of development
Multidimensional (physical, cognitive, socio-emotional)

Multidirectional (some things increase as others decrease)

Multidisciplinary (Many fields contribute to knowledge)

Plasticity (capacity for change)

Contextual (everything happens in context)
Contextually graded
Normative age-graded: happen to everyone at certain ages

Normative history-graded: happen to cohorts because they live during the same time

Non-normative: specific events that happen to an individual.
Life expectancy: how long you can expect to live based on the year you were born (78 now. Women live longer)

Life Span: how long a species can live under ideal circumstances (120-125. Stayed the same)
Life expectancy vs Life span

Which one changes?
Denial: It can't be me

Anger: Why me?!

Bargaining: Just let me do this one thing.

Depression: Withdrawal, crying

Acceptance: Sense of peace
Kuhler-Ross' 5 stages of dying are?
Higher cortex, then lower.
Which part of the brain shuts down first?
have slow onset and long duration.

Emphysema, Arthritis, Heart disease
Chronic disorders

(give definition and examples)
When all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specific period of time.
When is a person considered brain dead?
Trust vs Mistrust // Infancy- First year

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt // Infancy- 1-3 years

Initiative vs Guilt // Early Childhood- 3-5 years

Industry vs Inferiority // Middle, Late childhood 6-Puberty

Identity vs Identity confusion // Adolescence- 10-20 years

Intimacy vs Isolation // Early Adulthood- 20s, 30s

Generativity vs Stagnation // Middle Adulthood- 40s, 50s

Integrity vs Despair // Late Adulthood- 60s+
Erikson's 8 stages

(name of stage and age)
Emerging adulthood.
18-25. Idea that going into adulthood is a process, not an event. Doesn't happen overnight, but is a long drawn out process.
group of people born around the same time.
cohort effects.
experience the same history-graded things because of time period.
Advanced directives/ Living will
documents that allow you to announce your wishes. You don't have to be terminally ill to write one.
(normally you have to have a clear mind)
Prenatal death- miscarriage

Infancy- SIDS

Childhood- accidents or illness then leukemia.

Adolescent/ Young adulthood- suicide, homicide, auto accidents

Middle/Late adulthood- chronic diseases, cancer
Leading causes of death from the whole life span

(top 2 from each developmental period)
Medicine improvements have changed the concept of death.

Keep people alive on life support.
Today its harder to tell someone is dying because ___.
passive euthanasia
withdrawing something from a person's situation to cause death. (Pulling plug/feeding tube)
active euthanasia
adding something to a person's situation to cause death. (suffocation)
act of painlessly ending the lives of individuals who are suffering from an incurable disease or severe disability.
a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible. Makes every effort to include the dying patient's family members. Includes home-based programs today, supplemented with care for medical needs and staff.
palliative care
reducing pain and suffering, helping individuals die with dignity. Education and support for the family even after the person passes.
Care: hospice approach. Spends time making you comfortable during your time left.

Cure: doctor approach. Doing everything they can to keep you alive for as long as possible.
Care vs. Cure

Which one does hospice focus on?
1. Amygdala develops: processing information about emotions

2. Corpus coloseum thickens and grows stronger: improves adolescents' ability to process information; complex thinking

3. Frontal lobe develops: thinking and decision making
3 major changes in cognition and brain development in adolescence
heightened self-consciousness of adolescents

1. Imaginary audience: adolescents' belief that others are as interest in them as they are of themselves

2. Personal fable: involves a sense of uniqueness and invincibility
Adolescence egocentrism (2 parts)
prolonged grief
grief lasting from 6 months to 2 years
Disfranchised grief
can't outwardly express grief because of a certain situation (mistress, etc)
ambiguous loss
not having a body results in ___.
-Hormones during prenatal development

-Roles we're socialized into

-Genetic component (environment, genetics)

It's still unsure though.
Sexual orientation- What causes us to be gay or straight?
Old model: Idea that adolescence is the most important stage of development. Storm and stress model.

New model: much more positive.
2 Views of adolescence are?
eclectic theory
takes the best parts of all of the other theories and combines them. No theory can completely explain everything about development.
midlife crisis
Early research: common; based on age

New research: not common; happens because of stress not age. May affect one dimension of life but not all.
cross-sectional research
looking at people in a certain age group and comparing them to people in other age groups, all at the same time.

- Disadvantages: find age related differences but not changes

-Advantages: costs less, faster results
social clock
time period in which you're supposed to have things done according to society, for your certain age.

-Has changed over time

-More flexible now than 50 years ago
longitudinal research
looking at the same people over time

- Disadvantage: long time to get results

-Advantage: figures out age-related changes
Adolescence/Early adulthood: height up, weight up

Middle adulthood: height down, weight up

Late adulthood: height down, weight down
Physical gains in height and weight over the lifespan
looks at current life events/experiences and mediating factors. Development based on your events, not age.

- Widowed: same experiences as other widows

-Mediating factors: being widowed at an old age; length of time married
Contemporary life event approach
1. Free Radical Theory: byproduct of metabolism; trap your antioxidants

2. Cellular clock theory: cells are programmed to divide only a certain number of times

3. Hormonal stress theory: aging lowers resistance to stress and increase likelihood of disease

4. Mitochondrial theory: aging due to decay of mitochondria
Biological Theories of Aging
Increased cognitive function/stimulation

Physical benefits

Releases stress (mental health)

Can slow down age-related processes
Benefits of physical exercise in late adulthood
Activity Theory: the more active and involved older adults are, the more they'll be satisfied

Disengagement: pull out of your old habits- not a good theory today

Socioemotional Selectivity Theory: older adults become more selective about their social networks, spend more time with those in rewarding relationships
Social theories of aging
Knowledge-related: when time is perceived as open ended

Emotional: happen when it is perceived that less time is left
Knowledge-related vs Emotional goals
adults in middle adulthood are forced to have to take on the responsibilities of their own parents as well as their children.
Sandwich "squeeze" generation
Anorexic people use food as a means of ___.
it is a gradual process involving multiple distinguishing events.
It is difficult to know exactly when puberty begins and ends because ___.
Imaginary audience
Juanita, a 15 year old high school student, is afraid to go to school because of a small pimple on her forehead. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?
Testosterone; estradiol
________ is the dominant hormone in males, whereas _________ is the dominant hormone in females.
an accident
In the US, an adolescent is most likely to die from
increased penis size.
Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the boys that they are likely to experience FIRST?
genital-genital contact, oral-genital contact, and anal-genital contact.
Research indicates that Sexually Transmitted Infections can be contracted through ___.
The period of biological change that takes place during early adolescence is called ___.
Anorexia and bulimia affect women or men more?
bulimia nervosa
Jordan has a passion for food that leads her to gorge. However, after she gorges, she "compensates" by running as many as 10 miles and sometimes making herself vomit. She most likely has ___.
Which of the following contraceptives DO provide protection against STIs?
prefrontal cortex
The ability to plan, set priorities, suppress impulses, and weigh consequences is weak in adolescence because the _________ is the last part to mature.
Anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder that can result in death by starvation
anorexia nervosa
Jackie's doctor is concerned that she is losing too much weight. However, Jackie thinks her legs are "too fat" and continues dieting. Jackie is at risk for developing ___.
adults have a more completely developed frontal lobe.
Adolescents tend to respond with "gut" reactions to emotional stimuli, while adults are more likely to respond rationally. This may be because ___.
older than the average age for menarche in the US. (what is the average?)
Samantha is currently living in the US. She was 14 1/2 years old when she experienced menarche. Samantha is ___.
The hormone that is associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development is ___.
muscle cells; fat cells
During adolescence, boys have an increase in _________, whereas girls have an increase in ___________.
growth of pubic hair
Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the girls that tehy are likely to experience FIRST?
The second leading cause of deaths for American adolescents is ___.
earlier; 9
The growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs ____ for girls than for boys and begins at around age _____ for girls.
Personal fable and imaginary audience are parts of adolescent ___.
They use more lethal means than do females.
Why do males have higher rates of suicide than females?
want autonomy, whereas parents want control
Conflicts arise between parents and adolescents because adolescents ___.
identity foreclosure
Steve and Jen believe they should make certain that their adolescent knows the right choices to make, and they use harsh punishment when their directives are not followed. This pattern is likely to promote ______ in their adolescent
Identity ______ is James Marcia's term for the status of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis, and whose commitment levels are either absent or only vaguely defined.
a complex interaction between biological and environmental factors
Anorexia nervosa is caused by ___.
The difference between a clique and a crowd is ___.
"I know that you feel you don't have any other options, but I disagree with what you are considering. I'd like for us to discuss this in more detail"
Which of the following would likely be said by a parent who is enabling adolescent identity development
more autonomous
One benefit of adolescent-parent conflict is that it helps adolescents become ___.
Research shows that the adolescents who deal best with separation from from parents are the ones who have ___ attachment to their parents
As children get older, their groupings tend to become more ___.
a natural and healthy part of development.
According to Erikson, the adolescent identity crisis is ___.
both individuality and connectedness
Cooper and Grotevant (1989) believe that proper identity development occurs when parents encourage ______ in adolescents.
According to Marcia, the term ________ refers to the part of identity development in which adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do.
identity crisis
n adolescent who is experimenting with different vocational possibilities is experiencing what Marcia calls ___.
more; fewer
Parents who are _____ active in their teen's life have ________ conflicts with them.
Let their children control areas of their lives that they understand.
Which of the following would wise parents do as their adolescent children push for control?
identity moratorium
Harrison has thought for a long time about his future plans. He considered going to a technical college, but also considered the value of getting a liberal arts degree from a 4 year college. The decision caused Harrison a lot of anxiety. Finally, he decided to attend the technical college. He still wonders if his choice was correct. According to Marcia, Harrison is in a state of ___.
storm and stress
Although the period of adolescence is no longer considered a time of _____, it does normally involve emotional highs and lows in most adolescents.
a gradual process of discovery and development that continues through adulthood.
Unlike with Erikson's traditional view of identity formation, contemporary theorists believe that identity is formed by ___.
ollow the MAMA cycle of identity.
Researchers believe that adolescents who develop the most positive sense of identity are ones who ___.
identity foreclosure.
Ramon's parents have decided that he will enroll into his state college. Ramon has not really thought about the issue much himself, and will probably do what they advise. According to Marcia, accepting his parents' advise puts Ramon into ___.
a MAMA cycle
Martha's daughter asked her for advice about her future. Her mother explains that any decisions made now aren't permanent and her daughter will continue to reevaluate her decisions for the rest of her life. Her daughter is relieved that she doesn't need to decide "everything" right now, but is uncomfortable knowing these decisions will continue to come up in the future. Martha is trying to help her daughter understand that true identity development occurs in ___.
thletes, Older adults, Minorities

Which of the following groups may be effected by stereotype threat?
exposure of the fetus to hormone levels characteristic of females might cause an individual to become attracted to males.
Recent research exploring the biological bases of homosexuality has found that ___.
in early adulthood.
Peak physical performance is typically reached ___.
emerging adulthood
Jeffrey Arnett has termed the age range from 19-25 ___.
Sexual harassment
a manifestation of power and domination of one person over another
genital herpes
The most common of all sexually transmitted infections is ___.
getting a full-time job
The most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood in the US is ___.
sagging chin and protruding abdomen
When an individual reaches age 30, he or she for the first time may experience ___.
parental sexual orientation factor
The development of homosexuality is a complex process. It probably involves all of these factors EXCEPT ____.
Although most of them know what it takes to be healthy, most do not apply it.
How well do college students use their knowledge about health?
diet; exercise
While research shows that adults regularly ______ to control weight, experts recommend _____ for mored effective weight and health management.
desire for practical solutions to their problems
Which of the following is NOT typically characteristic of women's friendships?
Consensual validation
support for one's attitudes and behavior through another person's similar attitudes and behaviors
intimacy vs isolation
Erikson believed the primary crisis of the early adult years is
Rapport; report
_______ talk is a more common communication strategy among women, whereas men tend tend to prefer _______ talk.
attempt to become more emotionally intelligent
Ron Levant argues that men should reconstruct masculinity in WHICH ONE of the following ways?
a romantic partner
College students identified their closest relationship as being with ___.
Richard and Jamie's only real attraction toward each other is sexual. Sternberg's research would argue that they are experiencing ___.
What is not a typical characteristic of men's friendships?
In a cross-cultural study of marriage around the world, Buss and colleagues found that chastity is considered to be a very important factor in ___.
easy temperament as a 3-5 year old
According to Thomas and Chess, well-adjusted young adults likely had an ___.
5th -10th
Most divorces occur in the ___________ years of marriage.
reading the newspaper.
A typical person between 40 and 59 is going to have the most difficulty ___.
metabolic disorder
An increasing problem in middle and late adulthood is ____________.
eases the transition from work to retirement.
Leisure is particularly important during middle adulthood because it ___.
do not use effective memory strategies
Memory decline is more likely to occur when individuals ___.
Sally, a 60 year old who is postmenopausal.
Considering normal aging processes, whose blood pressure would be expected to be highest?
moved upward to higher ages
Freud and Jung studied midlife transitions around 1900. When comparing their work to that of today's theorists, we see that the boundaries of middle age have ______________.
crystallized intelligence increases, whereas fluid intelligence begins to decline.
According to John Horn, in middle age,
Perceptual speed

(spatial orientation, vocabulary, and verbal memory all peaked)
Willis and Schaie found encouraging results for middle-aged people in terms of their intellectual abilities. In fact, ALL BUT WHICH ONE of these abilities peaked in middle adulthood?
Fingernails and toenails becoming thinner.
ALL BUT WHICH ONE of the following statements apply to visible signs of aging?
Falling out of love
Brad and Tina have just gotten divorced; both are 55 years old. Which reason is Brad more likely than Tina is to cite as the cause of the divorce?
middle years
affectionate and companionate love increases during which years?
generativity vs stagnation
Hyun-Joo experiences great satisfaction through nurturing, guiding, and teaching skills to her children. Erikson's studies indicate that Hyun-Joo is dealing with ___.
contemporary life-events approach
The __________ emphasizes that how a life event influences the individual's development depends not only on the life event but also the mediating factors, individual's adaptation to the life event, the life-stage context, and the sociohistorical context.
The most common trigger for a midlife crisis is working with attractive younger people.
Which of the following statements regarding the midlife crisis is NOT true?
timetable that people construct for accomplishing life's tasks.
Neugarten's "social clock" is a ___.
marital satisfaction actually increases.
The empty-nest syndrome predicts that parents experience decreased marital satisfaction when the children leave home. Research has found that ___.
they face the demands of caring for both their children and their elderly parents.
Middle-aged adults have been described as the sandwich generation because ___.
being young vs being old
Levinson's research found that a major conflict for a middle-aged man is ___.
Emotional stability




The Big Five Factors of personality include
A disorder of old age associated with calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, estrogen depletion, and lack of exercise is ___.
Rosa's eyes have cloudy, opaque areas in the lens that prevent light from passing through, causing her to have blurred vision. Rosa's visual problem is ___.
With improvements in medicine, nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle, our lifespan has ___.
healing rates are slower in older adults.
Elderly adult accident victims are likely to spend more time in the hospital than younger accident victims do because ___.
free radicals.
Vitamin supplements called antioxidants may affect health by counteracting effects of ___.
free radical theory of aging.
People age because inside their cells, normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules that ricochet around the cells, thus damaging DNA and other cellular structures. This is the ___.
the ability to cope effectively with stress.
Researchers in the New England Centenarian study have found that the factor that contributes the most to living a long life is ___.
hearing problems
Elderly men are more likely to have _______ than elderly women are.
heart disease
The leading cause of death among the elderly is ___.
the telomeres, or DNA sequences that cap the chromosomes, become shorter over time.
Research expanding Hayflick's cellular clock theory found that cells die because ___.
It is associated with declines in social support.
Which statement regarding the decline in processing speed in older adults is FALSE?
Alzheimer's disease.
In the 1970s a deficiency of acetylcholine, which plays an important part in memory, was discovered to occur in ___.
family members.
Elder maltreatment is primarily perpetrated by ___.
less than their share of psychological services.
When compared with younger adults, adults over the age of 65 receive ___.
Older workers have more disabling injuries.
Regarding older workers and younger workers, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT ___.
for interest or enjoyment
A recent survey of baby boomers found that 80% of them plan to work during their retirement years. The MAIN reason they expect to continue working is ___.
selective attention.
Pablo is 80 years old and finds that when he has his Sunday dinner with his extended family of 15 people, he can't focus on one person's voice in all the noise. This is a fairly typical decline in ___.
What percent of Alzheimer cases are classified as early-onset?
are probably the result of lifestyle behaviors such as inactivity and stress.
The cognitive declines that are linked to poor health in the elderly ___.
episodic/semantic memory.
As we proceed into late adulthood, we can normally expect the least amount of decline in ___.
to have social partners who satisfy his or her emotional needs.
In socioemotional selectivity theory, an older adult narrows his or her social circles to ___.
Omar is an older retired adult. The fact that he maintains his interest in friendships, politics, and the stock market illustrates the ______ theory of aging.
Which of the following terms describes perceived control over the environment and the ability to produce positive outcomes?
selective optimization with compensation.
Agatha is an aging actress. She can no longer do 8 shows a week, but continues to take parts in shows that play 4-5 times a week. Because her memory is not what it once was, she takes smaller parts with fewer lines to remember. She takes more comedy and "character" parts so she doesn't have to worry so much about seeming like a realistic person, as she knows ageism often prevents people from taking elderly actresses seriously. This is an example of ________ theory of aging.
integrity vs despair.
Erikson believed that the final life-cycle that characterizes late adulthood is ___.
In most cases, when older adults choose to cohabitate, it is for ___.
generational inequity.
A policy issue that focuses on the greater amount of resources received by the elderly compared with those received by younger adults is referred to as ___.
cure; chronic
One special concern over the current medical system is that it is ____-oriented, whereas most health problems of the elderly are _____.
find a replacement role.
Activity theory holds that when one of an older person's roles is taken away, that person should ___.
individuals peripheral to their lives.
Socioemotional selectivity theory argues that older adults deliberately withdraw from social contact with ___.
making the final stage of dying pain free.
The hospice was developed with the goal of ___.
Approximately ______ of corpses are disposed of by burial.
know they are dying.
Most psychologists believe that it is best for dying individuals to ___.
make death more peaceful and less frightening for the patient and the family.
The MAIN purpose of a hospice is to ___.
A person today will most likely live until about age ___.
Living will or advanced directive.
Which of the following refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?
Which of the following medical interventions would MOST likely be found in a hospice?
she is experiencing an unusually long grieving period and should seek help.
Marie's sister died 3 years ago. marie is consistently bothered by sleeping problems, restlessness, and irritability. She often finds herself weeping uncontrollably because she misses her sister so much. Which of the following is probably true of Marie?
Approximately _______ of corpses are disposed of by cremation.
higher, lower
The ________ portions of the brain often die sooner than the ________ portions.
suffering more and in pain longer before they die.
Recent scientific advances in the US have led to more people ___.
Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to GOd if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kubler-Ross' stages of dying?
an individual is able to think clearly.
An advanced directive/ living will must be signed when ___.
a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.
Grief is MOST like ___.
Women have better social networks.
Why do women have an easier time with the loss of their spouse than do men?
Only the terminally ill can write one.
Which of the following statements about the living will is FALSE?
passive euthanasia
Levi sustained severe and irreversible brain damage in an auto accident. His wife and parents decided to remove the life support system, and Levi subsequently died. This is an example of ___.
active euthanasia
Damon placed a pillow over his terminally ill wife and smothered her to end her suffering. This is an example of ___.
A person born in 1900 would most likely live until about the age of ___.
one's brain shows no electrical activity
Death occurs neurologically when __________ for a specified period of time.
care; cure
The main goal of a hospice is _______ of the individual through pain management, support, and education. The main goal of a hospital is _______ of the individual through prolonging life at all costs.
Medical technology has made it possible to create differing definitions of death.
Why is it more difficult to determine whether someone is dead now than it was 100 years ago?
passive; active
In the US, _________ euthanasia is generally more accepted than ____________ euthanasia.





(denial to acceptance)
Kubler-Ross believed that as one proceeds through the stages of death, the person moves from