80 terms

Chapter 21 apush


Terms in this set (...)

The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
antimonopoly, social cohesion, victims of industrialization
varieties of progressivism
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
social gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
charles sheldon
Wrote the best seller "In His Steps". Asked his congregation to walk in the steps of Jesus. Introduced the principal of "What would Jesus do?" Led the Social Gospel movement.
salvation army
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.
Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
father john a ryan
catholic liberal who took to heart the Pope's warning that rich men have power over masses like slavery, belief that solution must be found with religion and church, he worked to expand the scope of catholic social welfare organizations
nature vs nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
jane addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes... example of nurture argument
hull house
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty... nurture argument
urban manifest destiny
middle class people settling in cities
Program set up by President Clinton to get volunteers to work in communities in the United States in return for college tuition money.
-example of nurture
social sciences
Related disciplines that study various aspects of human social behavior...high value on knowledge and expertise, only enlightened experts could create stability and order US needed
thorstein veblen
(1857-1929) American economist (of Norwegian heritage). Veblen is primarily remembered for his The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) that introduced phrases like "conspicuous consumption."
sociology and social work
scientific methods to solve and study society and its institutions, reformers concerned with new structure of organizations and committed to building new political and economic institutions capable of managing a modern society
american medical association
calling for strict scientific standards for admission to practice of medicine, with doctors themselves serving as protectors of their standards, new laws passed requiring licenses
american bar association
largest national organization of attorneys, professionalize the job
national association of manufacturers
formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara Movement, in response to Springfield Race Riots
the new woman
product of social and economic changes- wage earning activity had moved out of house and into factory or office, children enrolled in school at earlier ages, technology (running water, electricity) made housework less of a burden, declining family size
the new woman
term used at the end of the nineteenth century to describe women who were pushing against the limits which society imposed on women. Today she might be called a liberated woman or feminist, challenged traditional role in family, had fewer children, lived longer, single women more common, high level of education, high activity outside the home
boston marriages
refers to the relationship between women who lived together, often in long-term, sometimes romantic, relationships.
women's clubs
made up of middle class women who discussed political issues, led reform movements
national association of colored women
Independent association of women's clubs since most black women excluded from clubs, modeled like most women's clubs but some took positions on issues specific to black concerns such as lynching or segregation
charolotte perkins gilman
argued traditional definition of gender roles was exploitive and obsolete, wrote women and economics
mother's pensions
system where women pressured state legislatures to provide pensions to widowed or abandoned mothers with small children, absorbed into the social security system
children's bureau
women pressured congress establish children's bureau an agency dedicated to develop policies to protect children
women's trade union league
First national association dedicated to promoting women's labor issues
women's suffrage
at first advanced thru arguments that women deserved same "natural rights" as men, opponents said society needed distinct female "sphere"
seneca falls convention
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
elizabeth cady stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
susan b anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
National American Woman Suffrage Association
Pro-suffrage organization formed by the joining of the national woman suffrage association and the american woman suffrage association. Organization established in 1890 to promote woman suffrage; stressed that women's special virtue made them indispensable to politics.
anna howard shaw and carrie chapman catt
led the national women's suffrage association
florence kelly
Active in the settlement house movement and led progressive labor reforms for women and children.
nineteenth amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.
alice paul
Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
secret ballot
Anonymous voting method that helps to make elections fair and honest
municipal reform
Before the Progressive era, city municipalities such as water, transportation, and electricity were privately owned. The companies that controlled such were often corrupt. Thus, there was a movement to have the utilities owned by the government instead.
commission plan
A municipal reform in which voters elect the heads of city departments like fire, police, and sanitation rather than just the mayor. It was first used in Galveston, Texas in 1900, but was replaced by the manager-council plan of municipal government.
city-manager plan
hired outside expert to run the city, election of mayors made non-partisan and uncorrupted
at large city councils
reformers tried to make city councillors run at large to limit influence of ward leaders and district bosses
tom johnson
Progressive who reformed the political process... cleveland
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
direct primary
A primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
union labor party
example of unions playing large roles in reform, in SF, workers in Building Trades Council spearheaded the formation of the new Union Labor Party committed to a program of reform and indistinguishable from middle class and elite progressivists
triangle shirtwaist fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
senator robert f wagner
Commission delivered report calling for reform in labor conditions- reform lead in legislature by Tammany Dems. Imposed regulation on factory owners and mechanisms for enforcement
western progressives
reformers targeted federal govt b/c powerful as it never had been in East (power over lands and resources, subsidies for RRs and water projects, issues transcended state borders). Weaker local and state govts political led to weaker western political parties, govts passed progressive reforms more quickly
booker t washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
w.e.b. du bois
A Harvard trained professional who called for equal rights immediately for African Americans. He founded the NAACP that aimed to help African Americans improve.
talented tenth
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks
niagara movement
(1905) W.E.B. Du Bois and other young activists, who did not believe in accommodation, came together at Niagara Falls in 1905 to demand full black equality. Demanded that African Americans get right to vote in states where it had been taken away, segregation be abolished, and many discriminatory barriers be removed. Declared commitment for freedom of speech, brotherhood of all peoples, and respect for workingman
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Guinn Beal v. United States
supreme court supported their position that the grandfather clause in Oklahoma law was unconstitutional
Buchanan v. Worley
(1917) the Supreme Court struck down a Louisville, Kentucky ordinance that required whites and blacks to live in seperate communities. It was a major victor for the NAACP
temperance movement
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption, women saw alcohol as source of problems for families, employers saw it as roadblock to efficiency, political reformers saw saloon as Machine institution
women's christian temperance union
This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol. The pres of the company was Frances Willard.
anti saloon league
U.S. organization working for prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors. Founded in 1893 as the Ohio Anti-Saloon League at Oberlin, Ohio, by representatives of temperance societies and evangelical Protestant churches, it came to wield great political influence.
eighteenth amendment
prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
study of factors that influence the hereditary qualities of the human race and ways to improve those qualities
madison grant
Passing of the Great Race, was known primarily for his work as a eugenicist and conservationist; Scientific racist
passing of the great race
convinced many progressives that the new immigrants threatened our genetic integrity
the dillingham report
Made distinctions between the "old immigrant" and the more recent "new immigrant" Report favored the old immigrant, who had come from the North and West of Europe, and opposed new immigrants, who came from the east and south of Europe and other parts of the world.
socialist party of america
Socialist Party under Eugene V. Debs grew during progressive era. Socialists wanted to change structure of economy, but disagreement as to extent and tactics
eugene v debs
Helped organize Socialists Party in America 1901
industrial workers of the world
Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
Nickname for the International Workers of the World labor union, headed by Daniel Haywood
daniel haywood
head of IWW
wage slave system
refers to a situation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate. It is a pejorative term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.
Louis D. Brandeis
wrote the book Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use it. Further showed the problems of the American banking system. Wilson nominated him to the supreme court making him the first jew in that position.
other people's money
- Louis D Brandeis (progressive)
curse of bigness
seen as threat to freedom/efficiency
Monopolies control markets and control prices, when individuals control economy aspect
good trusts
trusts that did not abuse their power and contributed to economic growth
bad trusts
Took advantage of workers and cheated the public by eliminating competition
herbert croly
He wrote the The Promise of American Life (1909) where he called for an activist fed govn't of the kind Hamilton had advocated in the 1790s but one that would serve all citizens, not merely the capitalist class.
walter lippmann
wrote drift and mastery, focused on some form of coordination of industrial economy
theodore roosevelt
1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.

-solution was for govt to have more active role in regulating economic life "we should enter upon a course of supervision, control, and regulation of these great corporations- a regulation we should not fear, if necessary, to bring to the point of control of monopoly prices, symbol of reform impulse at national level