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Gravity
Terms in this set (151)
What is Coulomb's Law and what does it help you solve for?
|F| = k |q₁q₂| / r²
The electric force between two particles with charges q₁ and q₂ with distance r
k = 9 X 10⁹ N X m² / C²
What is the value of Coulomb's constant?
k = 9 X 10⁹ N X m² / C²
If you have 3 point charges q₁, q₂, and q₃, How would you figure out the total electric force on q₂?
F (on 2) = F (1 on 2) + (F3 on 2)
What is the formula to get the strength of an electric field at a certain location?
E = F (on q) / q
This is as vector. So if you have a point charge Q in a fixed position (assume it's positive), this is the strength of an electric field placed on a tiny positive test charge (q) around various locations near Q.
Start from beginning now
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Chapter 2 Kinematics
Chapter 2 Kinematics
What are the "Big Five" equations used in uniform acceleration type problems? Define the variables.
∆s =displacement
v = velocity
a = acceleration
(vi or v₀) = initial velocity
∆t = time elapsed
(vf or v) = final velocity
∆s = (1/2)(v₀ + v)t
∆s = v₀t + (1/2)at²
∆s = vt - (1/2)at²
v = v₀ + at
v² = v²₀ + 2a∆s
What does Newton's first law state?
An object will continue in its state of motion unless compelled to change by a force impressed upon it.
What does Newtons' second law predict? What's the equation?
Newton's second law predicts what will happen when a force does act on an object.
F = ma
what is the SI unit for mass?
kg
what is the unit for force (besides kg • m/s²)
N (newtons)
What is Newton's third law?
If object 1 exerts a force on object 2, then object 2 exerts a force back on object 1, equal in strength but in the opposite direction.
What is the universal gravitational constant?
G = 6.67 X 10⁻¹¹ N • m² / kg²k
The strength of the gravitational force between two objects is given by what equation?
F = G (m1•m2) / r²
What is the unit of measure for weight?
Newtons
What is the equation for the weight of an object?
F = mg of w = mg
g = gravitational acceleration
How is the coefficient of friction denoted?
µ
What are the two types of friction?
static friction and kinetic friction
_________: this type of friction occurs when there is no relative motion between the objects and the suffice (no sliding)
static friction
_________: this is the type of friction that occurs when there is relative motion (sliding).
kinetic friction
What in generally weaker? Kinetic friction or static friction?
kinetic friction
What equation represents the magnitude of max static friction force? Force of kinetic friction?
What is the relationship between the direction of static friction force and the direction of motion (sliding)?
They are opposite
What is the relationship between the direction of kinetic friction force and the direction of the intended motion?
They are opposite
What is the superposition principle for vectors?
pg. 71
What is the work formula used on the SAT subject test? Define all terms. When do you use this formula?
W = Fdcosθ
W = work
F = force
d = distance
θ = is the angle between F and d
This formula only works when the Force does not change as the object moves. The work done is the product of the component of force in the direction of the motion of the distance.
pg. 88
What is the work formula if a constant force acts over a distance and the force is in the same direction of the direction of movement.
W = Fd
88
If we have a graph of non-constant force (F) versus x, then the work done by F from x1 to x2 is equal to what?
pg. 92
The force is equal to the area bounded by the graph of F, the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = x1 and x = x2
The work done on an object (as the result of a steady force causing it to accelerate) has transferred energy to it in, in the amount of __________(Formula)
pg. 93
W = ½mv²
The energy an object possesses by virtue of its motion is defined as ___________(formula) and is called _____________.
pg. 94
K = ½mv²
Kinetic energy
What is the unit for kinetic energy? pg. 94
joules
Besides kinetic energy, what else is expressed in joules? pg. 94
work
The total work done on an object--or the work done my the net force--is equal to the objects change in __________ (term).
This is known as what theorem? What is the formula.
pg. 94
Kinetic energy is the energy an object has by virtue of its motion, but potential energy is independent of motion and arises from the object's ___________
position
How is there stored energy in potential energy? Where did this energy come from? pg. 96
Potential energy is the energy an object or a system has by virtue of its position. In each case, work was done on the object to put it in the given position (the ball was lifted to the tabletop, the arrow was pulled back), and since work is the means or transferring energy, these things have stored energy that can be retrieved, as kinetic energy.
Why are there different types of potential energy?
Because there are different types of forces.
_______________: the energy stored by virtue of an object's position in a gravitational field. What is its symbol?
pg. 96
gravitational potential energy
What is unit for potential energy?
pg. 97
Joules
What is the formula that we would use to describe a ball's gravitational potential energy in moving from the floor to the table? pg. 97
U(gravity) is the gravitational potential energy.
W = work done by gravity
In general, if an object of mass "m" is raised a height "h" (which is small enough that g stays essentially constant over this altitude change), then the increase in the object's gravitational potential energy is given by what formula? pg. 97
Why is gravity considered to be a "Conservative" force? pg. 97
The work done by gravity as the object is raised does not depend on the path taken by the object. The ball could be lifted straight upward or on some curvy path--it would make no difference.
What is the symbol for kinetic energy? pg. 98
K
______________: The sum of an objects kinetic and potential energies. What is the formula?
pg. 98
Mechanical Energy
E = K + U
What is the simplest form of the law of conservation of energy? (Formula). When does it apply? pg. 98
Assuming that no nonconservative forces forces (friction for example) act on an object or a system as it undergoes some change, mechanical energy is conserved. That is, the initial mechanical energy, E(i), is equal to the final mechanical energy E(f) or,
________: the rate at which work is done (or energy is transferred, which is the same thing).
pg. 102
power
What is the formula for power? **pg. 102**
Power = work/time power = W/t
What is the formula for the conversion between kelvin and degrees Celsius.
pg. 108
What is the symbol for amount of heat?
Q
What is the equation that connects the amount of heat and the resulting temperature change? Define all variables.
pg. 109
What is the equation that applies during the melting of the ice cube (or during any other phase transition)
pg. 111
In the case of a solid-to-liquid phase change (or vise versa), with is "L" in the formula: Q = mL
pg. 111
latent heat of fusion
In the case of a liquid-to-vapor phase change (or vice versa), with is "L" in the formula: Q = mL
pg. 111
latent heat of vaporization
What is the formula that relates the change in the length of a substance to a change in temperature. Define all terms. pg. 114
∆L= change in length
α = coefficient of linear expansion for that material.
∆T = Change in temperature
What is the equation that relates pressure to force? pg. 116
P = F/A
How much of something is in a mole of that thing? pg. 116
6.022 X 10²³
What makes an ideal gas? pg. 116
1. The volume of the gas molecule is negligible compared with that of the container that holds them.
2. They experience no electrical forces.
3. They undergo elastic collisions
What is the formula for the ideal gas law? define all terms.
pg. 117
PV = nRT
P = pressure
V = volume
n = number of moles
R = constant (8.31 J/mol • K)
what is the value for the ideal gas constant 'R'?
pg. 117
8.31 J/mol • K
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. What is translational kinetic energy? What are some other types of kinetic energy?
Translational kinetic energy: the energy due to motion from one location to another.
Vibrational kinetic energy: the energy due to vibrational motion.
Rotational kinetic energy: the energy due to rotational motion.
What is the formula the equates the average translational kinetic energy of a gas molecule and the absolute temperature of a sample? Define all variables. pg. 117
T = absolute temperature
K(b) = k is known as Boltzman's constant, kB=1.3806503×10⁻²³(m²kg)/(s²K) and is equal to the ideal gas constant divided by Avagadro's number, 8.31/(6.022 X 10²³)
K(avg): average translational kinetic energy
What is the formula to find the root-mean-square of a gas molecule? pg. 117
What is the significance of the root mean square speed (rms of a gas molecule)?
The root-mean-square speed measures the average speed of particles in a gas.
https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/gases-5/kinetic-molecular-theory-55/root-mean-square-speed-265-1270/
What is the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics?
pg. 119
What is the first law of thermodynamics? pg. 119
This is a statement of the conservation of energy that includes heat.
"Energy (in the form of heat" is neither created nor destroyed in any thermodynamic system"
What is the equation that corresponds to the first law of thermodynamics? Define all variables. pg. 119
∆U = Q - W
∆U: change in the internal energy of a system
Q: head added to the system
W: work done by the system
(U depends on the state of the system)
What is the equation that relates work with pressure and volume? pg. 120
W = P∆V
What is the "essence" of the second law of thermodynamics? pg. 123
The total amount of disorder -- the total entropy -- of a system plus its surrounding will never decrease.
What is the formula for the thermal efficiency of a heat engine? Define all terms. pg. 124-125
What is the formula for the thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle? Define the terms. pg. 126
...
linear momentum is defined by what equation? Define variables. pg. 134
p = mv
p: linear momentum
m: mass
v: velocity
How can Newton's second law be written in terms or momentum? pg. 134
Impulse is defined by what formula? Define variables. pg. 135
J: impulse
F: Average Force
t: time
How can Newton's second law be written in terms of impulse? pg. 135
What does the law of conservation of linear momentum state? pg. 138
The law of conservation of linear momentum states that in an isolated system, the total linear momentum will remain constant.
What is the formula to calculate the magnitude of centripetal acceleration?pg. 148
What is the torque equation that involves the radius? pg. 161
What is the torque equation that involves lever arm? pg. 162
What is the formula that defines angular momentum? Define all terms. pg. 167
L = rmv
L= angular momentum
r = radius
m = mass
v = velocity
What is the angular momentum formula that involves the moment of inertia? Define all variables.
pg. 168
L: angular momentum
I: moment of inertia
w: angular velocity
Which formula is the rotational analog to the conservation of linear momentum? pg. 168
What is the formula that defines angular velocity? pg. 169
What is the formula that defines angular acceleration? pg. 170
State Kepler's laws
First Law: The orbit of each planet is an ellipse and the sun is at one focus.
Second Law: An imaginary line from the sun to a moving planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.
Third Law: The ratio of the square of a planet's period of revolution (the time for one complete orbit) to the cube of its average distance from the sun is a constant that is the same for all planets.
What is the formula for elastic potential energy (spring)? Define the terms. pg. 184
U(s): Elastic Potential Energy
k: constant (spring)
x: displacement of the spring .
What equations relate period of oscillations with period of oscillation? (Simple Harmonic Motion) Define the variables. pg. 188
T: period of oscillations
f: frequency of oscillations
What is the formulas that relates the frequency and periods of oscillation to the mass of the block? pg. 189
Why don't the equations for the frequency and the period of a spring-block oscillations contain "A" (amplitude)
In simple harmonic motion, both the frequency and the period are independent of the amplitude.
Consider a spring of negligible mass hanging from a stationary support, and a block is attached to its end and allowed to come to rest. What is the equation that relates the mass of the block and the distance between old equilibrium and new equilibrium? pg. 193
What is the equation used to determine the net force on a block vertical oscillation spring-block problems? Define the variables. pg. 194
F: Force
k: constant (spring)
d: difference between new equilibrium and old equilibrium.
m: mass
g: acceleration due to gravity.
What are the pendulum equations used for frequency and period of oscillation if θ is small? pg. 197
What is Coulomb's Law? Define all variables. pg. 205
q₁ = charge of first particle
q₂ = charge of second particle
k = Coulomb's constant (9 X 10⁹ N X m²/C²)
What is the value of Coulomb's constant? pg. 205
k = 9 X 10⁹ N X m²/C²
What is superposition with respect to a force acting on a point charge from multiple point charges? pg. 206
The total electric force acting on on any particular point charge is simply the simple of the electric force of all the point charges surrounding the particular point charge.
What is the formula for the electric field vector? Define all variables. pg. 209
F (on q): force that the test charge experiences
E: electric field vector
q: test charge
What is the equation for the strength of the electric field created by a point charge source of magnitude Q? pg. 210
r: distance from test charge to point-charge source.
k: Coulomb's constant (9 X 10⁹ N X m²/C²)
Q: magnitude of point charge source.
E: strength of electric field
What is the equation the change in a charge's electrical potential energy with respect to the work done by the electric force? Define all variables. pg. 222
∆U(E): change in the charge's electric potential energy.
W(E): work done by the electric force.
What is the equation for the definition of the change in electric potential? Define all terms. pg. 224
∆V: change in electric potential
∆U(E): change in the charge electric potential energy.
q: the charge of a particle
Consider the electric field that is created by a point source charge. What is the formula for the electric potential a certain distance from the source charge? Define all terms. pg. 224.
V: electric potential
K: Coulomb's constant (9 X 10⁹ N X m²/C²)
Q: magnitude of point charge source.
r: distance from test charge to point-charge source.
The applications of electric potential all follow from which fundamental equation? Define all variables. pg. 226
∆U(E): change in the charge electric potential energy.
q: the charge of a particle
∆phi: change in electric potential
V: change in electric potential
___________: storage devices for electrical potential energy. You can think of them as a dam. Water builds up in one section of the dam before it can overflow and pass to the next section. pg 228
Capacitor
** For example you can have two conductors, separated by some distance, that carry equal but oppostite charges, +Q and -Q. This pair of conductors makes up a system called a capacitor.
What is the formula for capacitance ? Define the variables. Pg. 229
C = Q/V
Q: magnitude of the charge on the capacitor
V: Voltage
What is the formula to measure capacitance with a parallel-plate capacitor? Define all variables.
pg. 229
C: capacitance
epsilon-zero: "permitivity of free space" (its basically another form of Coulumb's constant: 8.85 X 10⁻¹² C² / N•m²)→ It's basically 1/(4π• Coulumb's constant (k))
A: The area of the plates
D: the separation between the two plates
From the definition C = Q/V, the unites of C are ___________. What is another way to describe this unit (another unit)? pg. 229
coulombs per volt
farad (abbreviated F): 1 C/V = I F
What is the formula used to calculate "E," the electric field between the plates of a charged parallel plate capacitor. Define all the variables. pg. 230
E: electric field strength
V: voltage between the plates
d: distance between the plates
One method of keeping the plates of a capacitor apart, which is necessary to maintain charge separation and store potential energy, is to insert an insulator, called a _________, between the plates.
dielectric
What does a dielecric always do?
It always increases the capacitance of a capacitor
What is the formula to calculate the electric field with a dielectric. Define all variables. pg 233
E: electric field
E (sub i): induced electric field within the dielectric
κ (kappa): dielectric constant, varies from material to material.
What is the formula to calculate capacitance with a dielectric? Define all variables. pg. 233
κ (kappa): dielectric constant, varies from material to material.
C: capacitance
What is the unit for current? pg 240
ampere (A).
____________: charge per unit time. pg. 240
current
What is the formula for current that involves charge and and time? Define all variable. pg. 240
I: Current
∆Q: magnitude of charge
∆t: time interval.
What is the basic resistance formula? Define all variables. pg. 241
R: resistance
∆V: potential difference
I: current
what is the unit for resistance? What does it represent?
Ω Omega
Ω = 1 V/A (potential difference divided by cross-sectional area).
The resistance of an object depends on what two things? pg. 241
1) The material that it is made of
2) Its shape.
What is the general formula for resistance involving the objects length, cross-sectional area, and material resistivity? Define all variable. pg. 241
R: resistance
p: material resistivity
L: length of object
A: cross-sectional area of object.
is the ∆V always found in the resistance equation in physics books? pg. 241
No. Sometimes it is just written as "V" but just know that in this context "V" means difference in electric potential.
___________: A term used to describe the difference in electric potential. pg 241
voltage.
________: the rate of doing work. It is the amount of energy consumed per unit time. pg. 243
Power (P)
What is the basic equation for power? Define all variables. pg. 243
List all the equations for power that can be derived from certain relationships. Define all variables. pg. 243
P: Power
I: current
V: difference in electric potential (voltage).
R: Resistance
Resistors become hot when current passes through them; the thermal energy generated is called ________.
joule heat
The ____________ is the energy provided by a cell or battery per coulomb or charge passing through it.
electromotive force (ε) or e.m.f.
The job of the voltage source (a battery for example) is to provide a potential difference call an _________, which drives the the flow of charge.
electromotive force, or emf.
What does it mean that the emf isn't really a force? How is it measured?
It's the work done per unit charge; and its measured in volts.
what is the symbol for e.m.f?
ε (epsilon)
What is the equation for current that involves electromotive force (ε).
What is the equation used to find the equivalent resistance from resistors that are in a series? Define all variables. pg. 245
R (equiv): equivalent resistance
V (sub number): voltage drop across a particular resistor
I: current
In a series circuit, the _______ is the same through each resister. pg. 246
current
If resistors are said to be parallel, they all share the same ______. pg. 246
voltage drop
What is the equation for current as it relates to traveling across several resisters in parallel. define all variables. pg. 246
V: voltage drop
R (sub number): resistance that corresponds to each resistor.
The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance for resistors in parallel is equal to what? pg. 246
The sum of the reciprocal of the individual resistances.
What are the formulas for the potential energy stored in a capacitor? Define all variables. pg. 256
PE: potential energy
Q: magnitude of the charge
∆V: difference in electric potential (voltage)
V: difference in electric potential (voltage)
C: capacitance
What is the formula used to find the equivalent capacitance from a collection of capacitors that are in parallel? Define all variables. pg. 256
C (sub P): the equivalent capacitance from a collection of capacitors in parallel.
Q₁: charge on the first capacitor.
Q₂: charge on the second capacitor.
∆V: difference in electric potential (voltage)
C₁: Capacitance of first capacitor
C₂: Capacitance of second capacitor
What is the formula used to find the equivalent capacitance from a collection of capacitors that are in series? Define all variables. pg. 258
C (sub s): the equivalent capacitance from a collection of capacitors in series.
Q: magnitude of charge.
∆V₁: difference in electric potential (voltage) across first capacitor.
∆V₂: difference in electric potential (voltage) across first capacitor.
C₁: Capacitance of first capacitor
C₂: Capacitance of second capacitor
What is the unit (and its abbreviation) for the strength of a magnetic field?
tesla (T)
What is the equation that describes the magnitude of force experienced by a charged particle as it moves with a certain velocity through a magnetic field? Define all variable pg. 270
F(sub B): magnitude of magnetic force experienced by the charged particle.
q: magnitude charge of the particle
v: velocity of the particle
B: magnetic field strength (tesla)
θ: the angle between v and B
The magnitude of a magnetic force experienced by a charged particle (F sub b) is always perpendicular to what? pg. 272
velocity (v) and the strength of the magnetic field (B)
If a particle is is moving through a magnetic field, how can we find the radius of the particles circular path? Define all variables. pg. 272
F(sub B): magnitude of magnetic force experienced by the charged particle.
F(sub C):magnitude of centripetal force on the particle
q: magnitude charge of the particle
B: magnetic field strength (tesla)
m: mass of particle
v: velocity of particle
What is the formula used to describe the magnetic force on a current carrying wire? Define all variables. pg. 274
•F(sub B): magnitude of magnetic force experienced by the wire.
• cursive lower case "L": length of wire
•B: magnetic field strength (tesla)
θ: the angle between length of wire (cursive lower case "L") and B.
What is the relationship between a long straight wire with a particular current, the magnetic field it generates, and the distance from the wire. Define all variables. pg. 277
I: current
r: distance from the wire.
B: magnetic field (tesla (T))
The current generates a magnetic field in the surrounding space that is proportional to the current (I) and inversely proportional to r, the distance from the wire.
Let's say a conducting wire of a particular length is moving with constant velocity in the plane of your desk through a uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to the desk. A charge q in the wire feels two forces, what are they? what is the equations that describes each of them? Define all variables. pg. 286
1) an electric force
2) a magnetic force
•F(sub B): magnitude of magnetic force experienced by the charge.
•q magnitude of the charge on the wire
•B: magnetic field (tesla (T))
•v: velocity of the wire
F(sub E): Electric force
E: uniform electric field
The motion of a sliding rod through a magnetic field creates an ____________, called _________. pg. 287
electromotive force
motational emf
What is the equation that describes motational emf. Define all variables pg. 287
•epsilon: motational emf
•v: velocity of the rod
•cursive "L": length of rod
•B: magnetic field (tesla (T))
what is the formula for magnetic flux? Define all terms. pg. 289
Φ: magnetic flux
B: magnetic field (tesla (T))
A: area of loop
θ: rotation angle of loop
Note: the direction of A is taken to be perpendicular to the plane of the loop.
What is the SI unit for magnetic flux? What is it equivalent to? pg. 289
The SI unit for magnetic flux is called the weber (Wb), which is equivalent to a tesla meter squared (T•m²)
____________: the emf induced in a circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux through a circuit. pg. 291
Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction
What is the mathematical representation of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction? Define all variables. pg. 291
ε (average): emf induced in a circuit
∆Φ: change in magnetic flux
∆t: change in time
WAVES
WAVES
what is the relationship between wave speed, wavelength, and frequency. Define all variables. pg. 305
λ: wavelength
ƒ: frequency
v: wave speed
What is wave rule #1? pg. 306
All waves of the same type in the same medium have the same wave speed.
What is wave rule #2. pg. 308
When a wave passes into a new medium, its frequency stays the same.
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